The basics of hygiene improvement of industrial enterprises

In our country no business can be put into operation without the approval of the sanitary authorities. Rationalization of the production process (mechanization, sealing) is an important factor in ensuring the normal properties of air environment of industrial premises. However, not always with the help of these events is possible to eliminate undesirable aspects of the production environment, particularly to reduce air pollution. In these cases, to reduce air pollution and removal of excess heat resort to ventilation - natural and artificial.
Natural ventilation is the result of the difference of temperature of air in industrial buildings and outside (thermal power), and also under the influence of wind, which put pressure on the wall of the building on the windward side (wind power).
In industrial premises use the so-called controlled natural ventilation - aeration. For admission of air in the walls of the building suit holes, and removal of heated air - holes in the roof (lights). In autumn-winter period open top row side holes, so the outer air, coming down from a height of 5-6 m, mingles with the warm air of the room and into the workplace comes quite heated. In summer the supply air opening in the lower row of side port. The air is expelled through the skylight in the roof of the building.
For the correct use of aeration need to know the direction of the wind and open the supply air holes from the windward side, and drawing from the leeward.
During artificial ventilation supply and exhaust air are carried out by the mechanical boosters. Artificial ventilation is complicated technical structure consisting of mechanical booster, ducts, devices for cleaning both inlet and exhaust air.
According to the principle of the device of artificial ventilation can be exhaust, intake and supply and exhaust. In addition, the ventilation system can be local exhaust, local supply and General.
Local exhaust ventilation is used to remove gases and dust in the place of their formation. In this case, the source of emissions is put in a cover, inside which creates a vacuum by sucking air. An example of local exhaust ventilation may serve as on-Board exhaust hoods.
Local ventilation is used primarily in the presence of high temperature and radiation sources. In this case, in the working area is served in the air at a certain temperature and speed. Most often, local ventilation is applied in the form of air showers.
If the sources of harmful gases or dust scattered around the shop, there is a General combined extract and input ventilation, which changes the air in the whole volume of the room.
All working premises, where workers remain for a long time, should have the temperature corresponding to the sanitary norms. For heating of industrial enterprises use a Central heating system: water, steam or air.
Illumination of industrial premises is an important element of their accomplishment. Inadequate or incorrect organized lighting can cause professional myopia. Poor lighting causes fatigue of the body and leads to the growth of a traumatism.
Research has shown that improving lighting conditions favorably affect the basic functions of view, leads to increase productivity and improve product quality.
Basic hygienic requirements of industrial lighting, are sufficient illumination of the working surface, uniformity, absence of shadows and blastcasta in the field of view of employees.
Natural light industrial premises is carried out through the Windows in the walls of the building or through the holes for the upper light (lamps) and normalized coefficient of natural lighting. Depending on the nature of the work, the size discern details daylight factor should be from 1 to 10%.
Requirements for artificial lighting set forth in SNiP II-A. 9-71, where the norms of light are regulated depending on the characteristics of the visual according to the degree of accuracy (high, medium, small, rough, working with the self-luminous materials and products in hot shops, General supervision over the production process, work in warehouses bulky items and bulk materials), the smallest size of the object of discernment (from 0.15 to more than 5 mm), the contrast of the object distinguish from the background (small, medium, large) and the nature of the background (light, medium, dark).
Light from lighting lamps shall be not less than 10% of illumination of the working surface in compliance with the standards for this type of work, but not to be less than 50 Lux in the case of discharge lamps and 5 Lux with incandescent lamps.
Depending on the difficulty of the visual light is divided into three groups by the amount of contrast consider the details and the background (low contrast to 0.2, medium - 0.5, greater than 0.5).
In order to reduce glare of the lamps norms regulated least the height of hanging lamps General steps above the floor, in the lamps of local illumination provides for the presence of reflectors with protective angle not less than 30 degrees and other
Artificial lighting can be General, local and combination. Local lighting is created by placing the lamp directly above the working surface. As a rule, in this case, use the lamp local lighting alpha, which enables to direct the light flux on the part of the working surface. The disadvantage of this method lighting are great contrasts in light of the workplace and surrounding areas.
General lighting is created by uniform placement of fixtures of the same type and the same power all over the room. From a hygienic point of view, this coverage is very favorable. However, in those cases that require significant illumination of workplaces (small parts), General lighting is not economically justified. In these cases it can be used combined light, i.e. in the same room used both systems of lighting. In all production areas, except in basic lighting in case of an accident it shall be provided with emergency lighting.
Improvement of industrial buildings depends also on floors, walls, ceiling. Floors should be warm, supple, without cracks and should not be a source of dust.
For improvement of working conditions of great importance is the availability of sanitary facilities: shower, emyvale, rooms for women's personal hygiene, dressing rooms, rooms for meals and other
The importance of providing workers with good-quality drinking water in the amount from 2 to 5 litres per person per shift. Drinking water (boiling water) should be submitted by fountains. The water temperature should be no higher than 20 degrees and not below 8 degrees.
In enterprises with the number of working women is not less than 100 per shift arrange premises for feeding infants. In these areas there should be a waiting room of an, a lavatory, a room for feeding.
Room personal hygiene of the woman is arranged in enterprises with the number of women at least 30 per shift. This building includes a reception and treatment with gushing (ascending) souls. When working outdoors or in a cold space provided accommodation for heating.

* Protective angle is the angle between the horizontal line at the level of the filament lamp and the line connecting the edge of the thread with the edge of the valve.