Boxes - rooms for isolation of patients with infectious diseases, and people, suspected of infectious diseases, and for insulation to prevent nosocomial infections.
There are several types of boxes:
Open boxesOpen boxes (Fig. 1) - part of the room, separated by partitions (mobile or stationary) height from 1.5 to 2.2 meters of Insulation in such boxes are imperfect. Closed boxes - the part to ceiling separated by a partition. Message boxes through the ward's corridor. The boxes are equipped with items necessary for maintenance of the patient. There are also sluice chamber. They represent areas with little branch gateway. The gateway is a washbasin, a second Bathrobe, solitaire (cap) for staff. These chambers are also open in the ward's corridor. The area of the box - 20-25 m: house - 10 .it2, the gateway to 1.5-2 m-, bathroom - 8-9 m2.
Millerovskiy Boxingthe Most perfect individual (so-called Millerovskiy) boxes (Fig. 2). The patient in this box is completely isolated. It comes in boxes from the yard. This box also has a branch gateway, connected with a corridor isolation wards, which is a washbasin, a second Bathrobe, solitaire (cap).
The medical staff included in the boxes through the gateway, which washes his hands, replaces Bathrobe or puts on the second Bathrobe, scarf (cap). When you exit Boxing staff first takes off the robe and hood, and then cleans and disinfects hands (0,2-0,5% solution of bleach and other). All things, care items, specimens submitted from Boxing in the yard. The boxes are only the most necessary for the patient subjects: bed, bedside table, a stool, a box with a cover of dirty Laundry.
Group boxes are used for isolation of multiple patients with the same diagnosis.
Boxes bacteriological - isolated premises for carrying out bacteriological research. These boxes can be large and can take up to several square meters) and small (table). Bacteriological boxes must meet the following basic requirements: to have a system for disinfection of air (bactericidal lamp, for example PDR-15 or PDR-30) or the system of supply and exhaust ventilation with submission decontaminated and heated to the desired temperature air. Disinfection of air can be done by passing it through a filter system, check microorganisms. To prevent microbial contamination of premises boxes should have predbannik and the vestibule, where personnel wearing protective clothing (coats, preferably sterile, mask, scarf or hat, Slippers). In bacteriological box should not be unnecessary things that interfere with the harvest, which is available daily with the use of detergents and disinfectants. When working in bacteriological Boxing use of the nutrient medium, sterile glassware and sterile or disinfected instruments etc. All subjects contribute in the boxes in advance before work of predbannika, and then include bactericidal lamps. If you have a large predbannika or vestibule it set the thermostat, a refrigerator, a centrifuge, in order to bring infectious materials in other rooms.
Table bacteriological Boxing, designed for one or two working, usually made of non-flammable glass or transparent plastic and can be used in field and the field. He has openings for the arms supplied with the sleeve of medical oilcloth or other washable material, ending with rubber gloves or rubber bands, located in the wrist working. Table box also has predbannik, bactericidal lamps or Plenum-exhaust system with submission disinfected air, the spirit lamp or a gas burner, a hose of gas; it is desirable to have a system of inlet and outlet flow of water, air thermometer, psychrometer, a vessel with a disinfectant, etc.
Boxes radiation - a special camera to work with radioactive substances. There are several types of boxes, designed to work with beta or gamma emitters on one or two jobs. Work with radioactive substances in the boxes is done using a special remote tools (see Radiological instrumentation) - remote forceps, clamps, skrivala ampoules and vials, and remote pipettes to dispense solutions of radioactive substances. In boxes supplied water for decontamination, and if necessary and gas. Radiation boxes have its own ventilation system with special filters - catchers volatile radioactive substances. After work is done decontamination of Boxing by washing it with soap and water. Drain water will be collected in special tanks and maintain to reduce the concentration of radioactive preparations to the maximum allowable levels for this isotope. You should periodically monitor the integrity of boxes and efficiency of filters-catchers ventilation system.