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A disease called alcoholism

  • Diseases and complications of alcoholism
  • Today few people doubt the existence of such serious diseases as alcoholism. Meanwhile, the view on medical entities alcoholism punched its way with great difficulty and established relatively recently.
    This situation was apparently linked to a number of circumstances. Under the disease is commonly understood as the form of existence of the human body, qualitatively different from healthy. The idea of the disease, usually associated with the pain, suffering. At the same time, drunkenness and alcoholism has traditionally been viewed as merely a moral flaw, the manifestation of promiscuity, self-indulgence, the inability to resist imaginary pleasure and temptation.
    A variety of clinical manifestations of alcoholism long prevented the investigators to bring them together to see the main regularities of formation and development of the disease. Yes and synthesize disparate facts, associated with the progression of alcoholism, it was difficult as long as the medicine is not established clinical-dynamic approach.
    There was also another difficulty in the way to comprehension of the essence of alcoholism. A number of mental diseases have been selected and classified according to the most essential criterion - criterion of selection. It is in the final stages of the pathological process is most obvious effect of pathogenic driving forces of the disease. Typically, the beginning of any disease is characterized by polymorphism. Too pronounced individual differences, strong defense system, not exhausted the reserves of compensation. In its pure form pathological process appears only in the final stages, but the fact of the matter is that to see the final stages, to systematize was not possible because of the short duration of human life in the previous historical period of evolution in General, and even less of life expectancy drinkers in particular.
    In addition, in view of psychiatrists got only separate people suffering from alcoholism. Most of these were people with a pronounced and well-perceived attraction to alcohol, leading to a long and destructive drinking bouts. Then they were sick with various psychosis associated with the admission of alcohol, seizures, alcoholic dementia, etc. So to make complete representation about the disease was not easy. If now to come back to the history of the issue, it should be stated that the scientific approach to the problem of alcoholism is seen in the end of XVIII - beginning of XIX century Mention about the medical aspects of alcoholism contained, in particular, in the writings of Benjamin rush, who stressed that after years the consumption of alcohol is developing the disease (Ruch, 1962).
    Stage should be considered as the book of Thomas Trotter (Trotter, 1804) "an Essay about drinking and its effects on the human body", in which he justified the provision that habitual alcoholism is a disease. In Russian the book was published in 1824 Little bit earlier, a Moscow doctor A. M. Salvatori described morbid attraction to blame as a mental disorder, and gave him the name "Vinomania" (vine - wine). In 1819, was the work of another Russian doctor - K. M. Brill-Kramer "About binge and treatment thereof in the instruction for everyone, with the addition of explanations for newrace about the methods of treatment of this disease". For the cause of binge the author considered "painful condition irritation of the brain and nerves". He tried first to enter and classification, highlighting the following types of drinking bouts, how long, laxative, interspersed, periodic and mixed.
    Finally, in 1852, the German language has published a book Meters of Huss (Huss, 1852) "Chronic alcoholism or Alcohol disease." Myself Gus was a therapist, and views about the existence of alcoholism as a disease was formed at primarily on the basis of analysis and generalization of internal pathology associated with alcohol abuse. However, during chronic inflammation of the stomach and intestines, obesity and liver cirrhosis M Huss saw something more, namely specific set of symptoms that reflect neuropsychiatric pathology in alcoholism.