Hospital in the USSR

Hospital in the USSR - treatment-and-prophylactic institution providing stationary qualified and specialized medical assistance. Hospital, whose structure includes a polyclinic (combined hospital), provides inpatient, outpatient, medical care at home and carries out preventive and anti-epidemic measures in the area of public services. Hospital, not combined with the clinic provides treatment for patients in hospital.
In the United hospital doctors work in the hospital and clinic that helps continuous improvement of their professional qualification. The work of doctors in the United hospitals system is organized on the rotation, at which the doctor periodically work in a hospital, clinic; possible dursunova system, i.e. the daily work in both parts of the hospital.
The hospital is called clinical, if it is a base for training medical students.
Depending on the volume of activity and service area hospitals are divided into the Republican, regional (district), city, district (city and rural) and rural precinct; depending on the accepted contingent of patients - in General, with branches in different specialties, and specialized psychiatric, tuberculosis, infectious diseases, and eye, ear and other
For treatment of children organized children's hospitals, which in turn are divided into General and specialized. City hospitals serve mainly the urban population, rural district and district hospitals provide care to rural populations. The Republican, regional and regional hospitals provide highly qualified and specialized help in largely rural population. In the nomenclature of institutions of Ministry of health of the USSR (1962) for maintenance of certain groups of patients is provided by specialized dispensaries with beds (see Dispensary).
The main direction in the development of hospital care in the USSR is to strengthen the material-technical base and specialization of hospitals. In accordance with that provided for the construction of large hospitals: in the cities of 300, 400, 600, 800, 1000 beds, and more, in rural areas - Central and district hospitals for 250 and 400 beds. The establishment of large diversified and specialized hospitals contributes to a more rational and efficient use of hospital beds, medical equipment, medical staff, material resources.
Directive XXIV Congress of the CPSU on the five-year development plan of national economy of the USSR in 1971 - 1975 provide further and more intensive development of this direction. The basis for the implementation of this fundamental issue is envisaged by resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers № 517 5/VII 1968 "on measures for further improvement of health and development of medical science in the country."
Manages the hospital edisoncore chief physician appointed by the health Department of the local Executive Committee of the Council of people's deputies and approve a higher body health. The hospital is responsible for all medical-preventive, administrative and financial activities of the hospital.
In the United hospital: emergency room, specialized departments in the hospital and clinic (therapeutic, surgical, and so on), auxiliary diagnostic and medical departments (x-ray, the Department of rehabilitation, laboratory), autopsy Department, a pharmacy, honey. archive and honey. Bureau of statistics, administrative-economic part - kitchen, warehouse, camera, office, Laundry.
The main structural part of both hospital and polyclinic is specialized Department (therapeutic, surgical, urological and other), headed by the head of Department. The responsibility of the head. the Department includes: organization of medical-diagnostic process and the control over its quality, improvement of professional skills of medical personnel Department, organization of research work and others In the regulations approved by the Ministry of health of the USSR in 1963, identified the following main tasks hospitals: the provision of highly specialized treatment-and-prophylactic help to the population, preventive and anti-epidemic measures, including hygiene education of the population; study of the causes of morbidity of the population; in the human resources management - the systematic improvement of medical knowledge and the ideological and political level of the staff.
At the hospital to create a medical Council to discuss the organization of hospital and outpatient care and social Council, which, in addition to health workers, comprised of representatives of public organizations - trade unions, red cross Society and managers of industrial enterprises, representatives of institutions located on the territory of service of the hospital.
General principles of organization of work of the hospital. All patients, except for entering in the maternity, childhood infectious Department, taking in the Central receiving Department. It produces registered patients, their examines the doctor on duty that sets the primary diagnosis and provides first aid is applied. Here make sanitary treatment of patients. In regional, city and district hospitals in the admission Department organize insulator for hospitalized patients with suspected infectious diseases, or for temporary isolation and subsequent transfer to other hospitals.
In large hospitals organize, in addition, diagnostic departments for temporary accommodation of patients with unclear diagnosis. In the maternity, children's and infectious departments reception and sanitary treatment of patients produce in the relevant departments or units (see Boxes).
Continuity in the care and treatment is provided at the United hospital transfer to hospital ambulatory card, patient, aimed for admission; on discharge of the patient from a hospital in the same map write about the treatment and give recommendations for further treatment and observation of patients. Unmerged hospitals and clinics shall inform each other about the state of patients with certificates.
In-patient treatment the big place is occupied with the organization of care for the sick, the important part is played by the nurses. Since 1968 in hospitals introduced the position of Junior nurses for care. For maintenance of patients in hospital there are two systems: the three-degree - doctor, nurse, a nurse and two-stage - a nurse and a doctor. Two-stage system of service significantly improves patient care: medical destination perform nurses, they enforce the rules health-protective mode, monitor the condition of patients and the sanitary Department.
An important role in the hospital belongs to the senior nurse, which is the closest assistant of the head of Department in organizing the work of nurses. In hospitals the sisters work in 3 or 2 shifts. Three-shift work of sisters contribute to better organization of health care.
The hospital sector is very difficult. These include medical and household equipment, transport, water supply, Sewerage, doing Laundry, etc. the Basic premises of the hospital should have established relevant standard set of furniture, linen industry - sufficient linen, made by a special standards.
Introduced the so-called small-scale mechanization of labor staff (cleaners, electroplater, mechanical washing dishes, vessels and other).


Hospital hospital for inpatient treatment. Hospital in the USSR - state health care institution providing free professional and specialized care. Many hospitals combined with polyclinics. In this case, they provide inpatient, outpatient, medical care at home and carry out preventive and anti-epidemic measures in the area of public services. Hospital, not combined with polyclinic is only the hospitalization and treatment of patients. Abroad use the term "hospital" (Hospital). In the USSR the hospital, the hospital called special military hospitals and hospitals for war invalids.
Hospitals in the USSR are divided depending on the location and volume of activity on a national, oblast (regional), urban, Central district, district and precinct. In addition, hospitals are allocated for specific purposes in General, with branch offices in different specialties, and specialized for the treatment of patients only certain forms of the disease (infection, tuberculosis, mental health). For the treatment of children are special children's hospitals.