The struggle with bad habits

In our country among bad habits, leading to severe health effects, the most popular are Smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol.
Tobacco Smoking creates medical, moral, social and economic problems for society. The known harmful effects of Smoking to health of people, large losses related to the loss of working time, fires and accidents through the fault of smokers. The fight against Smoking is a struggle for good health and longevity of the population, for high performance and improve the microclimate of premises in the workplace and at home.
In the base area lies substance abuse with the formation of psychic and physical dependence of toxic substances contained in tobacco smoke.
Starting from blind imitation, repetition fashion or aspirations of showing yourself accentuated personality, Smoking soon becomes a ritual, which is fixed according to the type of the conditioned reflex. Developed initially habit supported metabolic mechanisms, with a gradual development needs in the flow of nicotine into the body. For the first stage of tabacoman lasting 1-5 years, characterized by obsessive attraction to Smoking, reduction of control over the intake of nicotine and increase tolerance. In the second stage, lasting 5-15 years, there is a high tolerance to nicotine with the establishment of norms of consumption; obsessive desire is reinforced by periodic receiving mental comfort. Appear asthenic, vazovegetative disorders, somatic signs of trouble. In the third stage to the foreground somatic disorders: bronchitis, gastritis, arterial hypertension, precancer and cancer. The attempt of abstinence from Smoking causes signs of abstinence; tolerance to nicotine decreases. Typical is the reduction of the mental urge and failure conditions.
Smoking affects not only the smoker, but other people surrounding him. In the smoke of tobacco, in addition to nicotine, contains carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, radioactive and resinous substances. Acute poisoning tobacco smoke pallor of the skin, cold sweat, tachycardia, dizziness, noise in the ears, vomiting, gastrointestinal disorders, headache, tonic and clonic convulsions, anxiety, impaired consciousness. These symptoms often in individuals who begin Smoking and non-Smoking rooms, located in a smoky room.
Tobacco smoke irritates the mucous membrane of the mouth, respiratory tract, causing profuse Department of saliva and mucus; chronic intoxication develop rhinitis, stomatitis, laryngitis, bronchitis. Resinous substances tobacco smoke is carcinogenic and contribute to the development of lung cancer and other bodies in smokers; the risk of disease and its terms are in direct proportion to the number of cigarettes smoked. Smoking increases blood pressure, spasm of the small vessels that feed the heart muscle, creates prerequisites for the development of endarteritis, coronarosclerosis, myocardial infarction, General and cerebral atherosclerosis, stroke. Diseases related to Smoking are gastritis, peptic ulcer disease of stomach and duodenum. Chronic toxicity adversely affects fertility of the female body: possible menstrual disorders, disorders of the implantation of the egg in the uterine wall, abortion, premature birth due to the reduction of maternal-placental circulation and endocrine changes, early menopause, susceptibility to tumor lesions of the uterus, ovaries and mammary glands. It is proved that in smokers compared with nonsmokers mortality and indicators of somatic morbidity above.
The sizes of harm is so great that it has to deal with the world health organization. XXIV world health Assembly adopted a special resolution on the issues of fight against Smoking. At the insistence of the medical community, the sale of tobacco products in many countries is accompanied by information about the dangers of Smoking. This information is placed on cigarette packs or invested in each pack. In some countries organized the centers of struggle against Smoking and society; anti-tobacco propaganda is introduced into the school programmes.
In the USSR the fight against Smoking is a part of the preventive work of health. Regulated by Decision of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers "On measures on strengthening of struggle against Smoking" (from 31.12.80 year). The inter-Ministerial Council for the promotion of knowledge about the dangers of Smoking. In our country prohibited advertising of cigarettes, not allowed to smoke in medical institutions, establishments of public catering and so on
Radio, television, film and print actively help the all-Union society "Knowledge" to antinicotine propaganda. Want to get rid of bad habits can get free medical help.
Smoking as one of the types of substance abuse must be in a field of mental health and the psychological prevention. To an even greater extent this applies to the other bad habit - drinking, very quickly becoming addicted, and then and disease - alcohol addiction. About harm of alcohol abuse for the population and the necessary health measures, see the Chapter 15.