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Fighting alcoholism in foreign countries

As soon as it was realized the harm of alcohol to health, its negative influence on social and industrial life, started a fight with him. For many centuries B.C. in China, Egypt, Ancient Greece was envisaged punishment for drinking. Drunks were subjected to such measures of punishment as a mockery, flogging, torture and even death penalty. Drunkenness was forbidden Buddhist and Confucian religions. According to the canons of Judaism alcohol could be used only in small quantities in certain religious holidays. Drunkenness always condemned and Christianity, especially hard during the period of its origin. Severely persecuted intemperance in respect of alcoholic beverages in Ancient Rome. Quite drastic measures were fighting drunkenness and at a later time.
Gradually cognize the essence of alcoholism and its causes showed that the most common until the nineteenth century restrictive measures as a form of alcohol and drunkenness could not bring great success.
Relatively wide struggle against alcoholism started in early XIX century. The classic form of this struggle was the temperance societies, which were first founded in 1808 in England and North America. These societies from the very beginning came under the influence of the clergy, and propaganda of abstinence wore clearly of a religious nature. The clergy hypocritically called for sobriety, castigating "sin" and "perversity" of alcoholism. The activities of companies was manifested mainly in the form of demonstrations, sometimes very violent. Thus, in the United States during the women's crusade against alcohol, women are not only called for abstinence, but also destroyed drinking establishments. The success of these first society was very small, but they had a certain influence on the decrease of the number of distilleries and the reduction of trade vodka.
In the 30-ies of the XIX century protivokashlevoe movement began in Europe. Temperance societies appear in Germany, Ireland, and later in other European countries. In 1852, was founded plurality international "Order of good Templars", which demanded from members of abstinence from alcoholic beverages. Demanded the same "order of the Blue Ribbon" (England, Scandinavia), and "Blue Cross", founded in 1877 in Switzerland. By the beginning of XX century there were 16 international organizations to combat alcoholism. Non-drinkers had a lot of small unions, organized among pastors, teachers, doctors, students of higher schools and women.
Though the movement for sobriety was relatively wide, in most countries it had no success. Vodka consumption in this period increased in almost all countries. Calls for a full abstention from all alcoholic drinks are not receiving adequate response.
Failure protivokashleva movements were largely predetermined narrow sectarianism protivogololodnych societies. This movement was limited to only a campaign for sobriety. Physiological effect of alcohol has not yet been studied, the social causes of abuse were not opened, in some cases non-drinkers their exaggerated claims were alienated itself. The habit of drinking alcohol, the influence of literature and the press, supported alcoholic capital, was blunted concern drunkenness at the average person.
However protivokashlevoe movement in the nineteenth century played a positive role, because, as it evolved, it has expanded views about alcohol problem, treating it not only as a personal misfortune, but also as a social disease. In some countries (Germany, England, Finland and others) in the face of rising and strong labour movement socialist party, and trade unions have begun not only to support protivokashlevoe movement, but also to guide them. The fight against alcoholism, as well as tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases begin to associate with the General questions of the struggle against capitalism. The class struggle of the proletariat makes bourgeois government to pay attention to the problem of alcoholism. Legislation on combating alcoholism in different countries were depending on social and economic conditions, participation of the working class and its parties in protivosudorojnam movement, from the power of resistance of alcoholic capital.