Furrows and gyrus of a bark of a large brain

The surface of a large brain covered by furrows, separating it on the brains. Furrows are divided into primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary furrow constant, deep, appear sooner in the process of ontogenesis. Secondary furrow constant, but more variable in configuration and appear later. Tertiary furrow fickle, very variable in form, length and direction. In addition, part of furrows (fissuarae)indents the wall of the brain in the cavity of the lateral ventricle, forming a tabs (sparna, collateral, gippokampa furrow), and others (sulci) cut only the bark of the brain. Deep furrows hemisphere is divided into shares: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital islet.
The outer surface of the hemisphere (Fig. 1). The biggest furrow - lateral (selview; sulcus lateralis; Fig. 1 and 6, fS) - in early stages of development it is a hole which edges further converge, but the bottom of her and adults remains wide and forms an island (insula). Lateral groove originates on the basis of the hemisphere; in its outer surface is divided into three branches: two short - front horizontal (h Fig. 1) and ascending (r, Fig. 1) and very long hind horizontal going sloping backwards and upwards and on the back end divided into ascending and descending branch. Occupying the bottom lateral grooves island forms a directed outwards and downwards tab (pole), rolling on the base of the brain in the threshold of the island, or cross gyrus (limen, s. gyrus transversa insulae); the front, top and back of the island is separated deep circular groove (sulcus circularis insulae; Fig. 2) from the adjacent parts of the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes forming the tire (operculum frontale, frontoparietale, temporale). Obliquely reaching the Central groove of the island divides it into anterior and posterior lobes (Fig. 2).

furrow and the brains of the outer surface of the left cerebral hemispheres of the brain
Fig. 1. Furrow and the brains of the outer surface of the left hemispheres: Ang - angular gyrus; CA - the forward Central gyrus; CoE - Central sulcus ;Cf - back Central gyrus; f1 - top frontal furrow; F1 - top frontal gyrus; fm middle frontal furrow; F2 - middle frontal gyrus; f2 - bottom frontal furrow; F3о - orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus; F or - operculella part of the inferior frontal gyrus; Fst - triangular part of the inferior frontal gyrus; fS - lateral groove; Gsm najkrawa gyrus; h - front horizontal branch lateral grooves; ip magemena furrow; O1 - top occipital gyrus; OpR - Central tyre; RT - temporal pole; spo - postcentral furrow; spr - precentral.net furrow; t1 - superior temporal sulcus; T1 - superior temporal gyrus; t2-middle temporal sulcus; T2 - middle temporal gyrus; T3 - the lower temporal gyrus; Sigma front ascending branch of the lateral grooves.

furrow outer surface of the island (scheme)
Fig. 2. Furrow outer surface of the island (scheme): s.c.i.a.- front circular groove; s.c.i.s.- upper circular groove; s.c.i.p.- back circular groove; s.c.i.- the Central groove of the island; spi - postcentral furrow island; s.pr.i.- precentral.net furrow island; s.b.I and s.b.II - short furrows island; 13, 13i, 14a, 14m, R, ii, ii - degree cytoarchitectonics fields island (I. Stankevich).

The second major groove on the outer surface of the hemisphere - Central (rolandovna; sulcus centralis; behold the Fig. 1 and 5)- cuts through the top edge of the hemisphere (behold the Fig. 4), on its outer surface stretches down and forward, a bit short to the lateral grooves.
The frontal lobe (lobus moreover behind limited to Central, from the bottom - lateral sulcus. Anterior to the Central grooves and parallel to it are the upper and lower precentral.net furrows (sulci precentrales; spr, Fig. 1 and 5). Between them and the Central sulcus is the forward Central gyrus (gyrus centralis ant.; CA, Fig. 1), which goes down in the tire (OpR, Fig. 1), and up to the front part of paracentral lobules (Armenia, Fig. 4). From both precentral furrows depart forward almost at right angles to the upper and lower frontal furrows (sulci frontales; f1 and f2, Fig. 1)limiting three frontal gyrus - top (F1, Fig. 1), medium (F2, Fig. 1) and lower (F3, g. 1); the latter is divided into three parts: opercular (F3 op, Fig. 1), triangle (F3 t Fig. 1) and the ophthalmic (F3 o Fig. 1).
Parietal share (lobus parietalis) front restricted to the Central sulcus, bottom lateral, rear parietal-occipital and lateral occipital furrows. Parallel to the Central sulcus and backwards from it goes potentially groove (sulcus postcentralis; spo, Fig. 1 and 5 ), often divided into a top and bottom of the furrow. Between her and the Central sulcus is back Central gyrus (gyrus centralis post.; Wed, Fig. 1 and 5). With postcentral furrow often (but not always) connects magemena groove (sulcus iaterparietalis, ip, Fig. 1 and 5)bound arched backwards. It divides parietal lobe on the top and bottom of the parietal lobules (lobuli parietales sup. et inf.). In the lower part of the parietal lobules are najkrawa gyrus (gyrus supramarginalis, Gsm, Fig. 1)surrounding the ascending branch of the lateral grooves, and from it backwards - angular gyrus (gyrus angularis, Ang, Fig. 1)surrounding the ascending branch of the superior temporal sulcus.
The temporal lobe (lobus temporalis) is bounded above lateral groove, and in the posterior part is the line connecting the rear end of the lateral grooves with the lower end of the lateral occipital furrows. On the outer surface of the temporal lobe are top, middle and bottom of the temporal sulcus (t1, t2 and t3), limiting three longitudinal located temporal gyrus (T1, T2 and T3, Fig. 1 and 6). The upper surface of the superior temporal gyrus forms the lower wall of the lateral grooves (Fig. 3) and is divided into two parts: large, opercular covered parietal tire, front and the smaller, insular.

scheme of furrows and brains upper surface of the temporal lobe (the lower wall of the lateral grooves) left hemisphere
Fig. 3. Scheme of furrows and brains upper surface of the temporal lobe (the lower wall of the lateral grooves) left hemisphere: 1, 2, 3 - second transverse temporal sulcus; 4 - the posterior segment of the rear of the circular grooves of the island, passing in the first cross-temporal sulcus 6; 5 and 9 - front segments rear of the circular grooves of the island; 7 - supratemporal furrow; 8 - supratemporal gyrus; 9 - Presolana gyrus; 10, 11 and 12 of the front transverse temporal gyrus; 13 - planum temporale (C. Blinkov).

The occipital lobe (lobus occipitalis). Furrows and convolutions on the outer surface of the occipital lobe is very fickle. The most constant upper occipital gyrus [gyrus occipitalis sup. (BNA); O1, Fig. 1 and 5]. On the border of the parietal and occipital lobe there are several transitional brains. First surrounds the lower end of the opening to the outer surface of the hemisphere parietal-occipital furrows. In the rear part of the occipital lobe are one or two polar furrows (sulci polares)having a vertical direction and constraints on occipital pole downward occipital gyrus (gyrus occipitalis descendens).

furrow and the brains of the inner surface of the left cerebral hemispheres of the brain
Fig. 4. Furrow and the brains of the inner surface of the left cerebral hemispheres of the brain With sporna furrow; SS - knee corpus callosum; CoE - Central sulcus; SMD - cingular furrow; Cu - wedge; F1m - top frontal gyrus; Fus - lateral occipital-temporal, or spindle-shaped, gyrus; Hi - gippokampa gyrus; L - belt, or upper limbic, gyrus; Lg - medial occipito-temporal, or reed, gyrus; ot - collateral furrow; RA - paracentral clove; ro - parietal-occipital furrow; - WG prodlenie; scc - the groove of the corpus callosum; Spl - roller (splenium) of the corpus callosum; ssp - potemina furrow; tr - barrel shpornoj furrows; U uncus.

The inner surface of the hemisphere (Fig. 4). A Central position is occupied by the furrow of the corpus callosum (sulcus corporis callosi; see, Fig. 4). It goes backwards in hippocampal furrow (sulcus hippocampi), viplachivau wall of the brain in the cavity bottom horns of the lateral ventricle in the form amonova horns (hippocampus). Concentric the furrow of the corpus callosum is held with arched shape belt, or corny-regional, furrow (sulcus cinguli cmg, Fig. 4), and then backwards - potemina groove (sulcus subparietalis; ssp, Fig. 4). On the inner surface of the temporal lobe parallel hippocampus furrow is located renalna groove (sulcus rhinalis; rh, Fig. 6). Belt, potemina and renalna furrow delimit the top of the limbic area (gyrus limbicus). Its upper part is located above calloused body is designated as the cingulate gyrus (gyrus cinguli; L, Fig. 4), and the lower, located between hippocampus and analnoe furrows,as gippokampa gyrus (gyrus hippocampi; Hi, Fig. 4 and 6). In the anterior gippokampa gyrus is bent backwards, forming hooked gyrus (uncus; V, Fig. 4). Outside the limbic brain on the inner surface of the hemisphere are gyrus, turning on her with outer surface of the frontal lobe, the parietal and occipital lobes. In the rear part of the inner surface of the hemisphere are two very deep furrows - parietal-occipital (sulcus parieto-occipitalis; ro, Fig. 4 and 5) and sporna (sulcus calcarinus; S, Fig. 4 and 6). Parietal-occipital furrow and goes on the outer surface, only a little not reaching here megamanny furrows. Between her and the regional branch of half-length furrows is quadrangular gyrus - breakline (precuneus; WG, Fig. 4), in front of which there is paracentral slice (Armenia, Fig. 4). Sporna groove has a longitudinal direction comes from the occipital pole anteriorly, connects at a sharp angle with the parietal-occipital area and continues to below as the trunk (Tg, Fig. 4), ending under the rear end of the corpus callosum. Between shpornoj and parietal-occipital furrows lies wedge gyrus (cuneus; Cu, Fig. 4).

furrow and the brains of the upper and lower surface of the left cerebral hemispheres of the brain
Fig. 5. Furrows and gyrus the upper surface of the left hemispheres: Sa - the forward Central gyrus; CoE - Central sulcus; Cf - back Central gyrus; f1-top frontal furrow; fm middle frontal furrow; F1-top frontal gyrus; F2 - middle frontal gyrus; ip magemena furrow; O1-top occipital gyrus; ro - parietal-occipital furrow; sро - postcentral furrow; spr - precentral.net furrow.
Fig. 6. Furrows and gyrus the lower surface of the left cerebral hemispheres of the brain: THE olfactory bulb; - sporna furrow; F1o - top frontal gyrus; Ro - middle frontal gyrus; F3o - inferior frontal gyrus; fS - lateral groove; Fus - lateral occipital-temporal, or spindle-shaped, gyrus; g amb - gyrus ambiens; Hi - gippokampa gyrus; Lg - medial occipito-temporal, or reed, gyrus; ot - collateral furrow; ro - parietal-occipital furrow; rh - renalna furrow; s or tr - supraorbital furrows; t3 - the lower temporal sulcus; T3 - the lower temporal gyrus; tr - barrel shpornoj furrows; tro - olfactory tract.

The lower surface of the hemisphere (Fig. 6) is occupied mainly coming at it from external and internal surfaces of the units frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Don't belong to them only education, which are part of the so-called olfactory cortex (rhinencephalon), grooves and convolutions of which are clearly visible on the intact hemisphere only in ontogenesis (see Architectonics of a bark of a large brain, Fig. 1). On the lower surface of the frontal lobe undergoes olfactory sulcus (sulcus olfactorius)occupied olfactory bulbs and olfactory tract, Medially from it is located the direct gyrus (gyrus rectus), and the outside is very variable in form orbital sulcus (sulci orbitales). In between convolutions are also the name of the ophthalmic (gyri orbitales). On the lower surface of the temporal lobe outward visible lower temporal sulcus (t3, Fig. 6). Medially from it runs deep occipito-temporal, or collateral, furrow (sulcus collateralis; ot, Fig. 6). Between these furrows is located in the lateral occipital-temporal fusiform gyrus (gyrus occipito-temporalis lat., 's. fusiformis; Fus, Fig. 6). Between occipito-temporal and shpornoj furrows is reed gyrus (gyrus occipito-temporalis med., 's. lingualis; Lg, Fig. 6). Cm. also the brain.