Sergei Petrovich Botkin

Botkinfamous Russian Clinician Sergei Petrovich Botkin rightly called and one of the founders of national gerontology.
He was born in Moscow in 1832 in a family of large trader in tea, however, is not followed in the footsteps of his father, as it was often found, and has chosen a different path - the service of science.
After graduating from Moscow University and received a diploma of a doctor with honors and a degree of doctor of medicine, S. P. Botkin takes part in the Crimean campaign in the unit, an outstanding Russian surgeon N. I. Pirogov. After that, some time was improved in medicine abroad. Returning home, he organized the first in Russia the clinical laboratory.
The first of the Russian doctors S. P. Botkin great attention was paid to the problem of the nerve centers. He comes to the conclusion: the integrity of the human organism is determined by the nervous system. "She wrote Botkin,is the regulator of its internal and external activities that support life". With the external environment is connected and every disease of the person, the integrity of his body, which governs the nervous system. Thus was created the famous theory of nervism.
On the significance of the theory of Hungary I. P. Pavlov wrote: "Mr. Jackson was the best impersonation of legitimate and fruitful Alliance of medicine and physiology - those two kinds of human activity, which on our eyes erected the building of the science of the human body and promise in the future to ensure its best happiness is health and life..."
In the evening of life Botkin has directly addressed the issue of longevity. Its extremely interested in the question of pathology and physiology of old age. Botkin proposed study in detail more than 2 thousand inhabitants of Petersburg alms-houses. According to a survey he read the doctors of the city a number of interesting lectures, which were developed before the audience his views on the changes occurring in old body.
The vascular sclerosis without diseases Botkin believed physiological old age and ageing, followed by diseases, attributed to old age pathological.
With careful study found, for example, that the largest number of backward occurs at the age of 60-70 years, when older people are more likely to abuse excessive power. Such was 57 percent of the total, and all of them attributed to the group of "physiological ageing". It was noticed that varicose veins is more frequent in women than in men; in the elderly heart rate less than that of older women. Angina pectoris ("angina") from the "old, charity people in poor, was suffering rare." Apparently, in these circumstances, older people are worried less than in ordinary life.
Analyzing survey data, Botkin and his student A. A. Kadian, later known surgeon, came to the conclusion that arteriosclerosis, emphysema, decrepitude, poor hearing, visually impaired and other diseases is not mandatory satellites old age. This, argued Botkin, the signs of premature, pathological aging, painful things that you can and must fight. The great scientist believed that man, no doubt, can live much longer than he lives now, you only need step-by-step to investigate the mechanisms of aging. Only by understanding their meaning, you can try to influence them, to learn to control the aging process.
Thus, almost a century ago Sergei Petrovich Botkin raised the issue about the necessity of studying the processes of changes of organism ageing and made the first steps on the path of science, which only now beginning a serious its development.
Of course, other Russian scientists paid to the problems of longevity close attention. So, in the end of XIX - beginning of XX century our medicine has been enriched interesting experiments Ivan Romanovich Tarkhanova. At the same time began its work and the well-known Russian scientist M. S. Milman. Ageing he explained as the process of oxygen starvation cells of the cerebral cortex and the whole organism. It is also necessary to recollect the works of such prominent scholars as S. I. Metalnikov, M. S. Maslov, P. Yu. Shmidt, G. N. Speransky, A. C. Palladium.