The brotherhood of saints Cosmas and Damian

The Church persecuted not only anatomic search, but classes surgery.
In medieval society this craft was not among the godly specialties. Because surgeons have shed blood, and the Church, according to its doctrine, was a determined opponent of such methods of treatment.
True, at first doctors of the clergy had the right to conduct surgical practice, but soon had to move away from these sessions.
Surgery, as anatomy, got in the number of sinful professions. She stood too close to the practice was more common than we would like the Church. Its not studied in universities. This profession was considered a lot of people of the lowest grade.
The class prejudices of medieval society only reinforced this view.
In craft Paris tailor had no right to mend clothes: it was a matter of the scavenger. The same could not sew of the new: in his workshop new dresses were made only tailor. Carpenters made furniture without locks, otherwise they would violate the rights of mechanics. Smiths has not created and not sold keys.
Surgeons also formed their own Union - the brotherhood of saints Cosmas and Damian. The so-called Christian martyrs-healers, which surgeons to deem their heavenly patron.
On earth for members of the brotherhood watched too many eyes, and first of all the bishops of the city. They argued and signed the statutes of the brotherhood, and this tradition has remained in France until the XVII century.
The activities of surgeons jealously watched the doctor with a University education. They took care of the purity of its ranks from outsiders-bone-setters.
His Union had and the restless tribe barbers, headed by the Barber of country - Barber king. At first they were only cut and shaved their clients, but over Time their functions expanded.
In the XIII century in the hands of the barbers were lancets for blood-letters, and they were rivals of surgeons.
Representatives of different categories of the attending classes were at enmity between themselves, defending their rights and Privileges, and violating other people. Initially, their roles were distributed as follows.
Medical doctor was treating internal diseases, ordered recipes prescribed to patients enemas.
Surgeons did the surgery.
Barbers cut, shaved, let the blood and made small operations.
Barbers painted their shops in blue. Advertising of their activity were the scissors, combs, and from the XII century - white pelvic bone.
Surgeons have chosen for your ad bones, painted in yellow.
Both of them led a nomadic life. They passed and moved from city to city. Especially attracted them crowded fair, these life-giving artery of medieval society. How can you not remember ar-Razi with its description and fair medicine! When arriving to a new place, the surgeon will put up a tent, and laid out in a conspicuous place numerous patents and certificates in proof of his learning and art, solid stones allegedly extracted from the bladder of patients, as well as spiders and snakes, remote from the head of the asylum. Often doctors hired by drummers and trumpeters, and those loudly informed of all the suffering on the beginning of the next administration.
How far was the famous and now the Hippocratic oath from activities medieval surgeon!.. "Whatever houses I have entered, is bequeathed to doctors "father of medicine", " I will go there only for the benefit of patients, free of any arbitrariness and injustice".
Wandering teachers left their patients to the mercy of fate, not caring about any treatment after surgery.
But they were the only representatives of medicine, who was engaged in it practically. You can understand why scene - medieval doctors at the bedside - has become a common subject of satirical drawings. Dr.-theorists in his long robes, turning back to the patient, with the importance of discussing the causes of his illness, holding an academic book, and death, insidiously grinning behind the disputants, without interference kills his victim.
For a long time the subject of conflicts between doctors and surgeons were... recipes. They were released only of doctor of medicine. Surgeons in their activities now and then invaded the forbidden area. Then the doctor entered into an agreement with the barbers and opened for them classes where the teaching of medicine was carried out not in Latin, and French. And then that surgeons trembled: 1491 they submitted humble request to stop classes with the barbers. They promised to continue recipes patients not to write.
Peace did not last long. A few years later the feud broke out again, again formed two fronts. This time the surgeons were accused that they often washed stomach patients prejudice to the rights of medical doctors.
Doctors, surgeons, barbers is not everything, who studied healing the sick.
Health bar medieval society, declared the bathhouse and... charlatans, as they were called. They are also treated. Bath attendants, combined in a special Union, acted as experts in outer diseases, especially skin.
But how did the charlatans and what were they? Representatives of this fragmented tribe had no medical training. To them belonged to the village shepherds, blacksmiths, hunters, gatherers worms (worms, mashed together with other drugs, were treated with various wounds). Such healers treated with great contempt. Not without reason in the birth certificate of a German craftsman wrote: "Born in wedlock; has no relatives in the fortress, barbers, bath attendants and other".