Brominated hydrocarbons

Brominated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons in which replaced bromine one, two or more atoms of hydrogen. In most liquids, poorly soluble in water. Some brominated hydrocarbons (bromide methylene, bromoform) have a strong odor, other (methyl bromide) even in high concentrations have weak ethereal odor. Brominated hydrocarbons (mainly fatty number) are used in the chemical industry for methylation and metilirovaniya as refrigerants in fire extinguishers, antiknock additives (together with the tetraethyl lead - TES), are used as solvents, serve as substitutes for mercury in measuring devices, etc.
On character of action on an organism brominated hydrocarbons are highly toxic drug. The most poisonous methyl bromide - nerve poison that heavily affects the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Known fatal poisoning through the skin. After suffering poisoning long remain nervous system disorders, kidney function. Bromide methylene less dangerous. Bromoform, or tribromomethane, causes severe functional disorders of the liver and kidney, as well as deep disorders of the higher nervous activity. Bromine derivatives of ethane amaze same organs and systems that and bromine derivatives of methane. Methyl ethyl-a drug that causes organic lesions of the pyramidal tract nervous system. Dibromide (bromide ethylene, ethylene dibromide) more toxic than bromide methylene relatively weak drug, leading to a sharp degenerative changes in various organs and respiratory diseases.
Bromine derivatives of aromatic series possess narcotic properties and local irritant. Toxicity brominated hydrocarbons increases with the number of bromine atoms in the molecule of hydrocarbon. Irritating properties of brominated hydrocarbons somewhat higher than in the corresponding chlorinated.
First aid at acute poisoning is the same as in case of poisoning aromatic hydrocarbons (see).
The most radical way to prevent poisoning is the replacement of toxic brominated hydrocarbons less toxic substances. Work with bronirovannye hydrocarbons should as much as possible to mechanize and keep in sealed equipment, ensuring the continuity of the technological process. In the premises shall be equipped with effective local and General exchange ventilation. Maximum permissible concentration in the air of working premises: methyl bromide 1 mg/m3, bromide methylene - 10 mg/m3. Workers should wear protective gloves. Eye protect goggles or a mask. When skin contact with liquid brominated hydrocarbons need to quickly rinse them with water and soap.

Brominated hydrocarbons, hydrocarbons containing bromine. Brominated hydrocarbons, except for methyl bromide, are fluid, poorly soluble in water. Some used. at. (bromide methylene, bromoform) have a strong odor, other (methyl bromide) even in high concentrations have weak ethereal odour. Brominated hydrocarbons are used in the chemical industry for methylation and metilirovaniya, in fire extinguishers, as anti-knock (with tetraethyl lead) for motor fuel, as a high level of fumigants and solvents; in organic synthesis; as substitutes for mercury in measuring devices, etc. As drugs they have significant toxicity, causing severe degenerative changes of internal organs, especially the liver, kidneys, heart muscle, the Central nervous system.
Assume that b., proceeding in the cell, are subjected to hydrolysis with the formation of ions of bromine, which hardly penetrate through the cell membrane and, remaining inside the cells and damage them. The toxicity of b. increases with the number of bromine atoms in the molecule. Irritating properties of brominated hydrocarbons somewhat higher than in the corresponding chlorinated.
The most toxic methyl bromide (CH3CH) - relatively weak drug, but strong nervous poison, after poisoning which long remain nervous system disorders and kidney disease. His lack of odor and irritation in toxic concentrations increases the risk of acute poisoning when working with this substance. Action methyl bromide explain education in the body of methanol and formaldehyde. Most strongly affects the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Intoxication is manifested after a latent period. Known fatal poisoning.


Bromide methylene (CH2Br2) in animals causes acute poisoning with the rhythm of breathing, short-motor excitation, inhibition, changing new stroke motor excitation, during which there are phenomena ataxia, and paralysis of the hind limbs; death occurs in a comatose state. When you intoxication of animals breaks the function of the Central nervous system; chronic intoxication is accompanied by the human liver, kidneys and nervous system.
Bromoform (ADHD3) inhalation may lead to the development of acute, subacute and chronic poisoning. In cases of acute and subacute toxicity in animals showed severe functional disorders of the liver and kidney, deep disorders of the higher nervous activity. Chronic toxicity characterized by transient wave-like changes of the functional state of the nervous system, liver, kidneys.
Methyl ethyl - a drug that causes organic lesions of the nervous system (pyramidal tract).
Dibromethane (bromide ethylene, atlanpole) more toxic bromide methylene and rather weak narcotic drug; causes the expressed degenerative changes in various organs and disorders of the upper and deep! respiratory tract.
Bromine derivatives of aromatic series possess narcotic properties and prominent Local irritant. It is established that in the administration of brombenzol (phenyl-bromide) increase the allocation of neutral sulfur with urine.
Working in contact with bronirovannye hydrocarbons fatty number typically complain of reduced appetite, weight loss, constipation, headache, General weakness, pain and weakness in the limbs, fatigue, reduced initiative, dullness memory. Objective examination changes are detected, indicating functional, and in some cases - about organic violations in various parts of the nervous system. Changes usually occur in the long-term (4-8 years) contact with bronirovannye hydrocarbons. In severe cases of intoxication observed syndrome toxic entsefalomiokardita.
For brominated hydrocarbons approved the following maximum allowable concentration: methyl bromide - 1 mg/m3, bromide methylene - 10 mg/m3, bromoform - 5 mg/m3.
Prevention. Work with B. W. must be in sealed equipment, ensuring the continuity of the technological process, no contact with food products. Manual operation should be limited; they should be conducted in shelters equipped with mechanical ventilation. In some cases, the necessary General exchange ventilation, designed for thinning released toxic substances to the accepted limits. The control over a course of technological process, in particular the sampling should be carried out automatically in a closed apparatus and remotely.
Strict adherence to individual prevention: provide workers with working clothes, means for respiratory protection, eye protection goggles or a mask. Shall be carried out activities for personal hygiene (fast flushing B. W. soapy water when hit them on the skin and others), instruction of workers on safety and industrial hygiene. There must be a prior (employment) and periodic medical examinations. Cm. also Poisoning.