branching bronchial treebronchial tubes (bronchi) - a system of pneumatic tube branches of the trachea.
Level IV-V thoracic vertebrae trachea (see) shares (bifurcation) on the right and left main bronchi (diameter 15-10 mm), each of which, after a slight distance, becomes easy and is divided into lobe bronchi. Lobe bronchi branch to 10 segmental bronchi and lobular branch (Fig.). Increasingly decreasing in diameter lobular bronchi are split up at the end (terminal) bronchi. The whole system of branches of the bronchi in the lung is called the bronchial tree.
From the terminal bronchi (1-2 mm in diameter) begin even more subtle respiratory bronchioles, forming alveolar moves ending pulmonary bubbles.
Wall bronchus consists of several layers: the inner surface of the bronchi are lined with mucous membranes, outwards from her lies submucosa, separated muscle plate, then fibrous cartilage shell. Wall bronchus contains mucous glands, excessive production of which is the sputum. Prior to the entry into the lungs bronchi equipped with cartilage rings. Then with decreasing diameter of the bronchial tubes in the wall they found individual cartilaginous plates of different forms, which gradually disappear. The wall of the small bronchi deprived of cartilage and glands. Outside the bronchi surrounded by connective tissue, in which are blood vesselsand lymphatic vessels; closer to the goal of light are lymph nodes. Nerves, penetrating the wall of the bronchus, form the outside and from inside fibrous cartilage layer two plexus containing nerve nodes that serve local bronchomotor and vasomotor centers.
Research methods bronchi - see Bronhografiya, Bronchoscopy, Bronchoesophagology.
Pathology of bronchi - see Bronchitis, Bronchoscopy, Bregostenas, multiple Bronchiectasis, pulmonary Tuberculosis.

Bronchial tubes (bronchi; from the Greek. bronchos - tube) - a system of pneumatic tube branches of the trachea. B. and bronchial tubes are formed by the 6th month of fetal life of lung sacs (bulging ventral the front wall of the intestine). In the formation of their walls is an active participant surrounding mesenchyme.