Bronchitis

Bronchitis is a disease of the bronchi inflammatory nature, mainly affecting their mucosa. Bronchitis is one of the most common diseases of respiratory organs and often proceeds while defeat of the upper respiratory tract (nose, nose, throat, larynx and trachea. Localization process allocate tracheobronchitis (damage to the trachea and main bronchi), bronchitis (in the process of medium-sized and small bronchi) and capillary bronchitis, or bronchiolitis (affected bronchioles). The disease distinguish between acute and chronic bronchitis.
Acute bronchitis is usually infectious etiology. The disease development is promoted by fatigue, exhaustion, nervous and physical tension. Essential cooling and inhalation of cold air; in some cases, they play a major etiologic role.
Acute bronchitis occurs in isolation or combined with rhinopharyngitis, laryngitis and the tracheitis. In some cases, acute bronchitis can occur as a result of exposure to physical and chemical irritants.
Pathological process in acute bronchitis is usually limited to the mucosa; in severe cases, extends to the deeper layers of the wall of the bronchus. There are plethora of mucous membrane, her swelling and edema as a result of inflammatory infiltration. On its surface appears exudate, first skimpy serous, and then rich serous, mucopurulent or purulent; the epithelium of the bronchi clusively and together with the leukocyte out with sputum. For some diseases (flu) exudate can be hemorrhagic. In small bronchi and bronchioles exudate can perform all the light.
Acute bronchitis begins General malaise, runny nose, and sometimes unpleasant sensations in the throat. Appears cough, first dry or with poorly detachable sputum, then it increases join flooded chest pain, and sometimes muscle aches. Body temperature is normal or elevated (not higher than 38 degrees). Percutere identify pathology is not possible. Auscultation is scattered over the entire chest whistling and buzzing wheezing. Radiographically (not always) you can catch the strengthening of shadows root of the lungs.
In some cases, acute bronchitis is accompanied by a violation of bronchial obstruction that may lead to violations of the external respiration function (respiratory distress).
In the study of blood - moderately accelerated ROHE, small leukocytosis and stab shift in leukocyte formula.
More severe observed with bronchiolitis, or capillary bronchitis that can develop primary or in the distribution of inflammatory process with large and medium-sized bronchi on small and tiny. More often it occurs in young children and the elderly. The implementation of the lumen of the bronchioles inflammatory secret causes infringement of function of external respiration. The clinical picture of bronchiolitis - cough with difficult separated Muco-purulent sputum, sometimes shortness of breath, pulse Ochsen, the body temperature is raised. If percussion - on some sections of the box, and on other shortened percussion. Auscultatory - rich dry and moist rales of different caliber. Bronchiolitis is often complicated by pneumonia (see) and the lung atelectasis. Often develops lung, and sometimes heart failure. The duration of the course of acute bronchitis 1-2 weeks, and of bronchiolitis up to 5-6 weeks.
The prognosis for acute bronchitis favorable; bronchiolitis, especially in children and the elderly, more serious; the most serious - accession pneumonia.
The treatment is complex: etiological, symptomatic and aimed at strengthening the resilience of the organism. Shown in bed, full containing sufficient amounts of vitamins nutrition, abundant hot water (up to 1.5 liters per day in the form of tea with raspberry jam or hot milk with sodium bicarbonate), inhalation of 2% solution of sodium bicarbonate, mustard, circular banks, codeine, dionin, expectorants (e.g. extract termopsisa dry 0.05 g 2 times a day), sulfonamides (sulfadimezin or etazol 0.5 g 4 times a day for 3-4 days) and on the testimony of antibiotics (penicillin every 4-6 hours. 150 000 - 250 000 UNITS). When bronchiolitis - antibiotics, and cardiovascular drugs.
Prevention of acute bronchitis: hardening and strengthening of the body to make it less susceptible to harmful external influences (cooling, infections and other), elimination of external irritants (dust, toxic substances, etc.,), in the presence of diseases of nasopharynx - thorough treatment.
Chronic bronchitis can occur as a consequence of the sharp (if not active treatment) or to develop independently; often accompanied by diseases of the cardiovascular system, kidneys and other Main etiological factors of chronic bronchitis: infection, in a long time coming in the bronchi of the upper respiratory tract; irritation of mucous membrane bronchi various physical and chemical agents (dust, smoke, Smoking, and others). A significant role is played by the change of resistance of the organism under the influence of previous diseases, cooling, etc.
Changes are observed not only in the mucosa, but in the deep layers of the walls bronchus and often even in the surrounding connective tissue. In the early stages there is a plethora and thickening of the mucous membrane with inflammatory infiltration and release abundant sero-purulent exudate; in the future can be found in the mucous membrane of the separate parts of excessive growths of tissue or, on the contrary, its thinning. With the progression of the process is excessive growth of submucosal layer and muscle membrane with the subsequent loss of muscle fibers, development in their place of connective tissue, which could be formed bronchiectasis (see Bronhoektatical disease).
The main symptom of chronic bronchitis - cough, dry or with a Department of Muco-purulent sputum (more often). With the defeat of large bronchi dry cough, often comes attacks. Another form of chronic bronchitis, with a relatively small cough, according to Department of a large number of Muco-purulent sputum (100-200 ml / day), is more likely to occur with the defeat of medium and small bronchi. Percussion pulmonary often find tympanic sound, especially in nizhnezadnimi the lungs. Auscultation define hard breathing and whistling and buzzing wheezing; sometimes in nizhnezadnimi departments - not euphonic moist rales. When fluoroscopy - amplified pulmonary drawing more pronounced at the root. With the progression of the process in the result of inflammatory infiltration, and reflex influences narrows the lumen of the bronchus, disturbed bronchial patency, which leads to infringement of function of external respiration. The result for the above symptoms can join zianoz lips, asthma (sometimes prolonged nature), dyspnea movements, ie, the symptoms of lung and heart failure. For chronic bronchitis long periods of remission alternate with periods of exacerbation. The latter are characterized by a deterioration of the General condition, increased cough, increasing number of separated sputum, fever to 38o, by a greater severity of symptoms, identify physical and instrumental examination methods. A long course of chronic bronchitis leads to the development of emphysema (see), bronchiectasis and the pneumosclerosis (see). Persistently recurrent bronchitis, flowing with symptoms of asthma (asthma, excessive number of wheezing, their sudden appearance and disappearance, the presence of eosinophils in the sputum), called asthma. At asthmatic bronchitis relief usually comes from ephedrine.
The prognosis for chronic bronchitis favorable, but full recovery is usually does not occur.
Treatment in the period of exacerbation is the same as for acute bronchitis. In case of accession of lung and heart failure - oxygen therapy, treatment of heart means, etc., In the period of remission shown therapeutic gymnastics, sanatorium-and-Spa treatment (climate, seaside, mountain and forest resorts).
Prevention, in addition to the activities mentioned in the description of acute bronchitis is a thorough treatment of acute bronchitis.


Bronchitis (bronchitis; from the Greek. bronchos - tube) - the inflammation in the bronchi with predominant lesion of mucous membranes. Bronchitis is often combined with the defeat of the upper respiratory tract, and in the long - lesions of the lung. Bronchitis is one of the most frequent diseases of breathing system.
Etiology. In the etiology of bronchitis are of great importance bacterial (pneumoniae, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and other) and virus (influenza and other) infections, toxic (chemical) exposure and poisoning poisonous substances (chlorine, phosphorus and other compounds), some pathological processes (uremia), as well as Smoking, especially at a young age, work in a dusty environment. To the harmful effects of these factors, as a rule, joins the secondary infection. A significant role in the etiology of bronchitis belongs to violations of the blood and lymph circulation in the respiratory system, as well as disorders of the nervous regulation. The so-called predisposing factors include cooling, light vulnerability pharyngeal lymphatic ring, due to chronic rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, fatigue, injury, etc.,
The variety of etiological factors and clinical manifestations make it difficult to determine bronchitis. So, there is their division on primary and secondary (when bronchitis develops on the background of other diseases - measles, influenza and other); surface (affected mucosa) and deep (in a process involving all layers of the bronchial wall until peribronchial tissue); diffuse and segmental (on the distribution process); mucous, mucous-purulent meningitis, putrid, fibrous, hemorrhagic (on the nature of the inflammatory process); acute and chronic (on the nature of the flow). Under the condition of external respiration function distinguish bronchitis with disorders bronchial obstruction and ventilation and without those. Localization process allocate tracheobronchitis (affected trachea and trunks main bronchi), b (in the process of medium-sized and small bronchi), bronchiolitis (the process is extended to the smallest bronchi and bronchioles).