Bronchitis in children

Bronchitis in children is most often one of the manifestations of respiratory diseases of the upper respiratory tract viral or coccal etiology. Bronchitis may precede, accompany or complicate pneumonia. Often bronchitis is developing in the prodromal period of measles and catarrhal period whooping cough, and when influenza, adenovirus infections. There are acute, and chronic asthmatic bronchitis.
Acute bronchitis is the inflammation process usually occurs in the lining of the bronchi. Typical seasonality of the disease (usually in spring and autumn); it occurs most often in children with adenoid enlargement and chronic tonsillitis. Appear runny nose, then a dry, persistent cough. The body temperature is subfebrile or normal. In light listened dry rales. When it begins to stand out sputum, appear moist rales. The children of the first years of life usually sputum not otraslevaya, and swallow. Cough is particularly concerned about a child at night. Acute bronchitis differentiate with bronchopneumonia, stage I chronic pneumonia. The prognosis is favorable. In children suffering from rickets, exudative catarrhal diathesis, there may be a protracted course of acute bronchitis.
Treatment. Bed rest, appoint infusion raspberry, Linden blossom, acetylsalicylic acid from 0.01 to 0.3 g per reception, amidopyrine 0,025-0,15 g per reception. When dry cough - codeine 0,001 - 0,0075 g (children older than 2 years). For dilution of sputum - drink plenty of warm, alkaline mineral water Borjomi, Jermuk), ammonia-anisic drops: children up to 1 year 1 to 2 drops to 2 years - 2 drops 3-4 years - 3-4 drops 5-6 years 5-6 drops of 7-9 years 7-9 drops, 10-14 years 10-12 drops per reception 3-4 times a day. Used hot tubs (up to a temperature of 39 degrees), circular mustard, mustard pack.
Chronic bronchitis in children is often the result is sharp. There is also diseases of cardiovascular system (congestion in the lungs) and fibrous cyst pancreas (see cystic Fibrosis). In chronic bronchitis, generally, is the defeat of all shells bronchus and lung tissue. For the disease characterized by recurrent cough. Listen dry and non-permanent moist rales. ROHE accelerated. Differentiating with chronic pneumonia, tuberculosis by bronchodilator.
The treatment should be aimed at strengthening the resilience of the organism. During exacerbation applied sulfonamides (etazol or norsulfazol 4-6-8 times every hours following single doses: from 4 months. up to 2 years - 0,1 - 0,25 g, from 2 to 5 years - 0,3-0,4 g, from 6 to 12 years - 0.5-0.75 g, at first reception given a double dose); antibiotics (penicillin H1 kg of body weight per day for children up to 1 year 20 000-40 000 UNITS, older children from 150 000 to 400 000 IU per injection); antisense - gluconate calcium (children under 1 year - 0.5 g, from 2 to 4 years to 1 g, from 5 to 6 years old - 1 to 1.5 g, from 7 to 9 years in the 1.5-2 g, from 10 to 14 years - 2-3 g 2 - 3 times a day), diphenhydramine (children under 1 year - 0,002-0,005 g, from 2 to 5 years in the 0,005-0,015 g, from 6 to 12 years - 0,015-0,025 g per reception), pipolfen (children under 6 years assign inside of 0,008-0.01 g, older children - 0,012-0.015 g 2-3 times a day), UHF and diathermy chest (by a physician), a negative reaction Pirke - ultraviolet irradiation.
Asthmatic bronchitis is more common in children with exudative catarrhal diathesis and rickets. Usually begins after acute respiratory infections. The temperature is subfebrile. Above the light box shade of percussion sound, many moist rales of different calibers. Shortness of breath (type pytania) can be heard in the distance. This bronchitis lasts for weeks, gives relapses, sometimes leads to pneumonia, most of the children goes into a typical bronchial asthma.
The treatment consists in the treatment of rickets and exudative diathesis, the appointment of vitamins, especially vitamin B6 (20-40 mg / day in 3 admission), desensitizing preparations (calcium gluconate, diphenhydramine, pipolfen), including corticosteroids (prednisone 0.5 - 1 mg/kg in the morning by a doctor).
Prevention of bronchitis in children is reduced to the hardening of the child, appropriate nutrition, treatment of chronic tonsillitis, adenoid enlargement.

Bronchitis in children, unlike adults, rarely occurs as an isolated lesion of the bronchi. In the etiology of bronchitis in children leading the importance of viral respiratory infections. The most common bronchi observed in children under the age of four, the most severe course with the defeat of small bronchi - in the first year of life.
Prolonged and repeated bronchitis are more common in young children suffering from rickets, exudative diathesis, older - the propensity for allergic reactions, adenoids, hypertrophy of the tonsils, inflammation of the paranasal cavities of the nose. Repeated or prolonged B. may be accompanied asthmatic syndrome, and further to condition the development of chronic pneumonia. Deaths are rare.
The disease develops gradually, temperature increases, worsens the General condition appears cough (especially at night), at first dry, and then wet. Percussion and x-ray data is of little help in the diagnosis. Of great importance for the early diagnosis is the identification of dry and moist rales in lung auscultation.
Treatment: bedding content, fresh air. Medical therapy for soothing cough and liquefy phlegm and mucus in children ineffective. The sulfanilamidami and antibiotics are assigned primarily to prevent the development of secondary coccal infections, pneumonia.
In disease prevention bronchitis leading value have: hardening of the child from an early age, increasing its resilience through rational feeding and regime, prevention and treatment of rickets, timely readjustment of the nose and throat.