Bronchi

X-ray anatomy
The basic method of studying rentgenografii bronchi is bronhografiya (see) directly, side and oblique projections.
Direct bronchogram. The bifurcation of the trachea is projected on bronchogram adults at the level of IV-VI of the thoracic vertebrae. Her position varies depending on the position of the head and neck, breathing.
The bronchi of the right lung (3, 1). From the top of the right main bronchus departs upper lobe (upper zone) bronchus (I). Following his discharge main Century continues in the right intermediate bronchus. In the lower part of it, almost at the same level, depart medium equity (FWD zonal) bronchus (II) and bronchus apical part of the lower lobe (rear zonal) bronchus (III). Down right intermediate bronchus continues in basal (lower area) bronchus (IV).
Right upper lobe b (I) is directed outwards and several up and is usually divided into 3 segmental B. - terminal (1), upper-rear (2) and front (3).
Right srednedushevoj b (II) is directed outwards and slightly downwards and is divided into two segmental B. - outer (4) and internal (5). B. the top (top) side of the lower lobe, resp. back zonal, resp. back segmental (III)is visible in direct projection rarely, only in a contour bronchogram or tomogram in the form of a ring-shaped shadow. Most often this bronchus is divided into three typical branch - upper, outer and inner.
Basal B. lower lobe (resp. the lower zone) (IV) can be divided into two, three, four segmental branches. The most accepted scheme of its division by four segmental bronchi - internal (7), front (8), external (9) and rear (10). In direct projection is usually the most medial in the middle of the shadow is internal segmental bronchi (7) and consistently outwards from it back (10), external (9) and front (8).
Bronchi left lung (Fig. the 3.2). X-ray image as the anatomical structure of the bronchi both lungs, not quite symmetrical. The left main B. long and already right; he shares the first on the upper and lower equity b (intermediate). Upper lobe b shares on top (top zonal, I) and reed (FWD zonal, II); proximal - on the back (rear zone, III, 6) and basal (lower zonal, IV) B. in the lower lobe. In addition, unlike the right lung, left apical and verkhnesadsky segmental B. most frequently depart common stock, and medial B. lower lobe (7) common stock with a forward (8) segmental B. Reed segmental B. on the left are as follows - one top (4) above the other lower (5), unlike B. the right middle lobe where they are lateral (4) and medial (5). The total number of segmental B. in the right and left lung same and equal to 10.
Side bronchogram (Fig. 3, 3). The image of the bronchial tree in the lateral projection of the wide trunk shadow, obliquely crossing almost all pulmonary field, which corresponds to the projection of the trachea and based on its continuation gradually leaning backwards main, intermediate, and basal bronchus. From this trunk in the front and rear direction depart shadows segmental (and area) of the bronchi.

bronchogram scheme
Fig. 3. Bronchogram (scheme): 1 - straight right; 2 - direct left-hand; 3 - the right-hand side. G - primary bronchus; P - intermediate bronchi (left upper lobe and inferior). I on the right upper lobe, resp. the upper zone bronchus, left - upper reach upper lobe lung, resp. the upper zone bronchus; II right - srednedushevoj, resp. front zonal, left - reed, resp. front zonal bronchus; III - apical bronchus lower lobe, resp. rear zone; IV-basal bronchus lower lobe, resp. the lower zone. Segmental bronchi: 1 - apical (apicalis) right; 2-upper-back (posterior) to the right; 1+2 - apical and upper back (apicaiis et posterior) to the left; z - front (anterior); 4 - outer (lateralis) to the right, top reed (lingularis superior) left; 5 - inner (medians) on the right lower reed (lingularis inferior) to the left; in - rear (apicaiis sup. lobi inferioris); 7 - bottom medial (basalis medialis); 8 - bottom front (basalis anterior); 9 - bottom outer (basalis lateralis); 10 - lower back (basalis posterior).
(In parentheses are international nomenclature segmental bronchi in PNA.)