Bronchial asthma

Bronchial asthma is characterized by attacks expiratory shortness of breath (dyspnea), due to the narrowing of the lumen of small bronchioles, and the appearance in them of exudate. B a result, there is a sharp delay of air in the lungs and extension of the alveolar air; short breath, exhale slow and difficult. Prolonged and frequent attacks can lead to chronic bronchitis.
Bronchial asthma is infectious-allergic nature. As an allergen, causing choking, can be a variety of reasons: the smell of hay, some flowers, food and medicinal substances and other
Bronchial asthma is seen as the result of violation of normal relations between different departments of the Central nervous system, the regulatory functions of smooth muscles bronchi. Anxiety subcortical centers leads to reflex spasm of the bronchi and bronchioles exposed to allergens. In patients with bronchial asthma vagus nerve in a state of high sensitivity. The irritation of his sudden spasm of smooth muscles bronchi and narrowing of the clearance that impedes the promotion of air, especially during exhalation. The delay of the air leads to the expansion of the alveoli of the lungs emphysema.
During the attack the patient noted the loud breathing, accompanied by whistling and wheezing. The patient rests his hands on the table to record the zone of the upper extremities, making accessory respiratory muscles involved in breathing. Breathing exercises, reflex reduce the patient spasm of the bronchi and bronchioles (impact nosological reflex).
The main tasks of medical physical culture are:
1) restoring the balance of processes of excitation and inhibition in the cerebral cortex of the brain, the repayment of pathological kortiko-visceral reflexes and restore normal stereotype regulation of respiratory apparatus;
2) reduction of spasm of the bronchi and bronchioles; improving ventilation;
3) activation of trophic processes in tissues;
4) to inhibit the development of emphysema;
5) training of the patient to control their breathing apparatus during an asthmatic attack to facilitate it;
6) training elongated exhalation.
The course of medical physical culture in the hospital is divided into 3 periods: I (gentle), II (functional) and III (training). I and II periods occur in the hospital, III - in the conditions of a hospital or sanatorium.
The first period is to familiarize with the condition of the patient, its functionality. The duration of the period depends on the severity of the disease.
In the II period of the classes are conducted in the original provisions of sitting, standing, based on a chair, standing up. Activities the following: medical gymnastics, morning hygienic gymnastics, dosed walking.
In the physiotherapy sessions using special exercises:
1) breathing exercises with extended expiration;
2) respiratory exercises with the pronunciation of vowels and consonants, contributing reflex reduction spasm of the bronchi and bronchioles;
3) exercises for muscle relaxation zone of the upper extremities;
4) diaphragmatic breathing;
5) exercises to strengthen the abdominal muscles (internal and external obliques, rectus)that contribute to the improvement of expiration;
6) massage of the chest and muscles of the forearm (reduces the stiffness of the chest and makes breathing easier).
In therapeutic exercises for patients with bronchial asthma should include the most simple, easy breathing exercises (Fig. 6).

bronchial asthma therapy in pictures
Fig. 6. Special breathing exercises that help exhale

Between the respiratory exercises with the pronunciation of sounds should definitely include a pause leisure to relax muscles (20-30 C). Dosage of exercises 4-12 times. The pace is slower and average.
Using reflex massage has positive effects on the state of patients with bronchial asthma. First massage the front surface of the chest (using stroking, rubbing, kneading, intermittent vibration, slide), then back area.
The third period of the course of medical physical culture takes place in the conditions of sanatorium or health clinic. Therapeutic gymnastics are held in the original standing. Apply the same special exercises that in previous periods.
The young people with rare attacks along with morning hygienic gymnastics, therapeutic gymnastics in sanatorium-resort conditions shown dosed rowing, swimming, skiing, skating, volleyball, basketball and other

Estimated lesson, therapeutic exercises in bronchial asthma in functional (II) the period
Part of the class Original position Description of exercises Dosage Methodical instructions
Introduction Sitting on a chair Flexion and extension of the hands in the elbow joints 4-6 times The average rate
Bending and straightening stop with simultaneous bending of the fingers into a fist 6-8 times The same
Main Standing, relying hands on a table or headboard Breathing exercise with pronunciation W 4-6 times The pace is slower, exhale long
Standing, feet at shoulder width apart, hands on the back of the head Torso in hand 4-6 times When tilted exhale.
The average rate
Standing, feet shoulder-width apart, hands omitted Abstraction hand in hand (inspiration) with the subsequent compression of the thorax, in its lower part (exhale) 4-6 times The pace is slower, exhale long
Standing in the hands stuffed the ball Raise the hands up with the ball - inspiration, put down and out 6-8 times Pace average, exhale long
Standing, right hand on the chest, left - stomach Diaphragmatic breathing 4-6 times On the inhale - abdominal wall rises, on the exhale - drops
Standing in the hands stuffed the ball Passing the ball from the chest partner 6-8 times Runs on the exhale
Standing Take your arms 45-degree angle - inspiration, put down and out 4-6 times Maximum relaxation of the muscles of the belt in the upper limbs and chest
Standing The usual walk 1 min. Breathing free
Standing, relying hands on a table or a chair Breathing exercise with pronunciation W 4-6 times The pace is slower, exhale long
Sitting on a chair "The walk" 15-30 with Breathing free
Final Sitting on a chair, hands to her shoulders Lifting bent hand in hand (breath), followed by a gradual compression of the chest (exhale) 4-8 times Maximum relaxation of the muscles in the zone of the upper extremities
Pause rest 60    
Sitting on a chair Bending and straightening stop with simultaneous bending of the fingers into a fist 4-8 times Breathing free