Cadmium (Cadmium, Cd) is a chemical element of group II of the periodic system of elements of D. I. Mendeleyev. Ever since. number 48, atomic weight 112,40. Cadmium is a silvery-white, soft, malleable metal, t melting 321°, t kipeniya 767 degrees. Used in the manufacture of alloys, pictures, etc. the metal Itself has no Toxicological values. All cadmium compounds are poisonous, enter the body in the form of vapour, mist, smoke and dust.
Most likely poisoning during the smelting of cadmium and burning in the flames voltaic arc (welding). Acute production of cadmium poisoning are rare, usually associated with infringement of technological process. Symptoms of acute poisoning appear through 8-10-36 hour. (sometimes even after 30 minutes) after exposure to cadmium. While there may be irritation of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract and eyes, lips, headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, chest pain in podlojecna area, higher temperatures (up to 39 degrees and above), hypotension, blood leukocytosis with neutrophilia and limfopenia, accelerated ROHE. Then join phenomena bronchitis, tracheitis, pneumonia, cough and sputum, shortness of breath, cyanosis, stagnation. In severe cases can pulmonary edema.
Chronic poisoning may develop after 2-3 years of working with cadmium.
The characteristic symptoms of this poisoning is lowering smell up to a complete loss, yellow-gold circle staining gums in the neck of the tooth (cadmium border), headache, dizziness, loss of appetite, weight loss, defeat mucous membrane of the nose, perforation of the nasal septum, increasing shortness of breath with symptoms of pneumosclerosis. Further damage to the kidneys and liver, gastrointestinal disorders, expressed forms of neurasthenia.
First aid and treatment. In acute poisoning: drink hydrogen sulfide water, the antidote metals (inside 50-100 ml, for washing stomach 200 ml, 800 ml of water) or a solution of unithiol (1-3 ampoules of 5 ml of 5% solution in a glass of warm water), BALL-British anti-lewisite (1 ml intramuscularly 4-6 times) or tetatsin-calcium - calcium disodium salt etilendiamintetraatsetata acid (20 ml of 10% solution imposed a 5% glucose solution or izotonicescom solution of sodium chloride intravenous infusion, 1 time a day for 3-4 days). In chronic poisoning is recommended change of work, symptomatic treatment, General health-improving diet and vitamin therapy.
In order to prevent poisoning should all units smelting and thermal processing of cadmium to provide local exhaust ventilation. When working with cadmium we recommend the use of respirators, gloves, aprons. MPC of cadmium oxide in the air of working premises - 0.1 mg/m3.
All persons who have contact with cadmium, should undergo periodic medical checkups 1 once a year.