The course and prognosis of carcinoid

To the characteristics of the course of carcinoid include: slow growth and the spread of tumors, later metastasis and strict tumor site (usually does not expand in breadth). All these features provide for a significant duration of the disease. Downstream carcinoid very close to benign tumors. Moertel (1961) has defined the life expectancy of 28 patients from the first symptoms to death. The average length of life was equal to 8.1 years and a maximum of 23 years. The life of patients from the moment of detection of the tumor often reaches 10-20 years even in the case of metastases (Oates and Butler, 1967). In comparison with other malignant tumors forecast when carcinoid should be considered as relatively favourable. In early appendectomy (tumor without metastasis) in patients with carcinoid process they become completely healthy. Other tumor localization corresponds to a much worse prognosis.
Among the reasons of death of patients functioning carcinoid is necessary to note the General metabolic and hemodynamic disorders caused stand hypersecretion some humoral agents. Patients can die from severe heart failure, often accompanied cachexia.
Patients with carcinoid ileum without metastases often die from irreversible changes observed in advanced, later recognized forms of intestinal obstruction, especially in old age.
Carcinoid can be combined with cancer of various localizations. Root (1959) believes that if 9% of patients with primary cancer found malignant tumors of other organs, when carcinoid in 40-60% of cases develop tumors of different nature, including adenocarcinoma.