Carcinoid (from the Greek. karkinos - cancer, tumor and eidos - similarity) refers to a rare malignant tumors of epithelial origin. The first most distinct morphological description of this tumor was given at the end of last century Lubarsch (1888). In 1907 Oberndorfer suggested that the term "carcinoid". The author considered that in its histological picture of the tumor reminds solid cancer, however, unlike the latter, it is not more likely to spread.
Further, prior to the beginning of 50-ies of our century in the literature carcinoid was seen as a benign tumor. In 1914 Gosset and Masson showed that carcinoids result Autonomous proliferation of argentophile (enterohromaffinnah) cells Kulchytsky, founded in nerve plexuses submucosal layer. Such opinion was divided A. M. Apricot (1919).
Dockerty and Aschbrun (1943) convincingly showed malignant nature of carcinoid. The tumor has the ability to intensive growth and gives metastases in different organs (Sauer, 1958, 1963). Kanlor (1961), proposes carcinoids as potentially malignant lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.
The literary data on the frequency of carcinoid are based mainly on the results of pathoanatomical dissection. Ritchie (1956) observed carcinoid in 0,14-0,34% of all autopsies.
Moertel et al. (1961) analyzed sectional material in 20 years (1938-1958, and on 14 852 opening met this tumor in 0,65% of cases. Almost simultaneously Peskin and Orloff (1959) led summary data about the frequency of carcinoid several prosectura major medical institutions. According to their data, these tumors met in 0,08% of cases 175 891 opening.
According to Roth (1961) and E. G. by Yanina Gurova and Y. A. Lovchev (1966), are most often carcinoid is located in the Appendix (65-90%). The rest of 10-35% of the cases are distributed between the ileum, colon, duodenal and rectum, stomach, pancreas, gall bladder, ovarian, testicular, bronchi. The ileum is often affected by carcinoid. The tumor is found in the Appendix, very rarely spreads, at the same time carcinoid ileum metastasizes in 65-75% of cases. By 1959, appeared in the literature describing 225 cases of primary carcinoid rectum. According to Peskin and Orloff, out of every 15-20 carcinoids of the gastrointestinal tract specified localization of the tumor occurred in 1 case. Avulo (1969), however, observed carcinoids in the vermiform Appendix, only 37.7% of patients, and in the rectum - 45,2%.
The frequency of metastases carcinoid rectum varies according to different authors, from 8 to 40%.
Askergren and Hillemins (1964) described 26 primary carcinoids, outgoing from the mucous membrane of the bronchi.
Carcinoid almost equally often happens to men and women. The average age of patients with carcinoid Appendix was equal to 25, and at other locations - 55 years (Jones and Gunkmer, 1961).
Until the middle of the current century literature data on the carcinoid wore mostly descriptive. In 1952 Biorck et al. reported the case of the sudden death of 19-year-old boys with unusual shortness of breath and cyanosis. At the opening were found carcinoid ileum, the pyloric stenosis pulmonary artery and the tricuspid valve insufficiency In the future in the literature were given a whole series of these observations, which, as a rule, met carcinoid with multiple metastases. Most in detail these changes were studied Swedish scientists (WaldensTrom, 1955, 1958; Thorson, 1954, 1958, and others), who called this series of pathological disorders "carcinoid syndrome" or "functioning carcinoid". In a complex of symptoms include disturbances of hemodynamics, a kind of vasomotor and skin lesions (syndrome redness - flushing syndrome), changes in the gastrointestinal tract, bronchi, the right heart and the pulmonary artery. According to the Sauer (1963), carcinoid syndrome occurs on average in 7% of patients with carcinoid of various localization. Moertel et al. (1961) believe, that with carcinoid liver metastases carcinoid syndrome is observed in 1/3 of cases.