• Pathogenesis of caries
  • Caries and periodontal disease are the most common dental diseases. So, tooth decay occurs in our country, and also in different countries of the world in 80 - 90%and diseases of parodont - 40 - 50% of the population. This high incidence reflects not only the lack of effectiveness of existing methods of prevention, but it also involves a large amount of clinical work and especially the prevention and treatment of various complications of caries and exacerbation of neglected cases of periodontal disease.
    In medical stomatological institutions employs more than 100 thousand doctors-stomatologists and dentists and thousands of nurseswho have great tasks for the treatment and prevention of dental diseases. The role and importance of nurses in this work cannot be overestimated, especially because emerged and developed the tendency to expand their functional duties. Assume a more active participation of nurses in medical and preventive work. In order to carry out this important and responsible work properly, you must have some knowledge and skills.

    Development of methods of prophylaxis of caries

    The problem of tooth decay is one of the major in modern dentistry. High prevalence of dental caries, in virtually all countries of the world, shows that not yet found ways and methods of effective, accessible and effective prevention of this pathological process.
    In recent years, has again been extended study of the incidence of dental caries in a population with consideration of climatic geografiseskikh conditions and social environmental factors. For the period from 1963 to 1977 in different regions of the country held a mass survey of more than 300 thousand people of urban and rural population. These survey to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries, to identify factors influencing the incidence. So, for the Northern and Eastern areas of the country characterized by a high prevalence of dental caries, it reaches a 90 - 99%. Somewhat lower, but also relatively high (70 - 90%) were negative influence on teeth , the population of Ukrainian, Belarusian, Moldavian SSR. The relatively high incidence of caries found in the examined contingent middle band (including Moscow and Moscow regions). In South and Central Asian Republic;;despite favorable climatic conditions, the richness of the diet with vitamins, the incidence of caries varies from 65 to 98% [Rybakov A. I., Bazian, Century, 1973].
    High figures of the incidence of caries are given in the materials of scientists of foreign countries. Thus, the prevalence of dental caries in most European countries reaches 95 - 99%, and North and South America - 85 - 98%. Many researchers have attributed the high incidence of dental caries in different countries with insufficient content of fluorine and other trace elements in drinking water and food, with the nature of power (frequent high intake of carbohydrates and mainly charcodebase elements with food, lack of vitamins and other), with poor hygiene of the mouth (especially in children of preschool and younger school age), and most importantly the lack of effective measures to prevent tooth decay that is connected, apparently, with significant differences in the assessment of the causes of tooth decay. In fact, among the scientists there is no consensus about its origin, and consequently, and on the ways of preventing this pathological process.