Cerebellum

The cerebellum (cerebellum; synonym small brain) - Department of the brain, ensuring the coordination of movements, muscle tone and balance of the body. The cerebellum is located in the posterior cranial fossa over the oblong brain and by a bridge. Over the cerebellum are the occipital lobe of the cerebrum (see the brain); between them and the cerebellum stretched tent (or namet) cerebellum - the process of the Dura mater.
Anatomy and physiology. In M. distinguish upper and lower surfaces, front and rear edges. The cerebellum is the average of the Department, or worm, and two hemispheres, each of which is separated by grooves into three parts (Fig.). Each share hemisphere corresponds to a specific area of the worm.

the cerebellum
The cerebellum (construction): a - top, or rear, the surface; b - the lower, or the front, the surface; in - sagittal cut through the worm. 1 - front fillet; 2 - the right hemisphere; 3 - rear tenderloin; 4 - the left hemisphere; 5 - average cerebellar peduncles: 6 - piece; 7 - the amygdala; 8 - the cerebellar vermis; 9 - plate cetverokatnice; 10 - front brain sail; 11 - white substance; 12 - the cerebellar cortex; 13 - the medulla; 14 - bridge.

In the cerebellum there are laid inside the white substance and covering it with a thin layer of gray cortical substance. White matter of cerebellar hemispheres connects medial with a white substance of the worm. Arrangement of white matter, visible on the sagittal section of the worm, because of their similarity with the picture of a branching tree called the tree of life. In the white matter there are aggregations of gray matter - kernel Meters, of which more important are dentate nucleus of the roof and the kernel of the tent.
White matter hemispheres, cerebellum is connected with the adjacent parts of the brain through fibrous bundles. These bundles form of various thickness strands, called the legs of the cerebellum, and connect the cerebellum the bridge, with average and oblong brain.
Average legs out of the cerebellum lateral and, gradually approaching, going forward, moving to the bridge.
The top or the front, the legs are the medial medium, go ahead and flattened round cords (also gradually converging) disappear under Chetvorkata, in the area of red nuclei. Between them is placed in front of the brain sail.
Lower legs go back and down to medulla.
The main function M is a regulation coordinated (coordinated) activity of skeletal muscles.
Together with the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum is involved in coordinating the so-called voluntary movements. This is done through connections with cerebellar receptors, founded in skeletal muscles, joints and tendons.
Together with vestibular apparatus of the semicircular canals of the inner ear (see)signaling in the Central nervous system on the position of the head and the body in space, the cerebellum is involved in the regulation of body balance (see) when walking and active movements.
Regulation of the cerebellum coordination skeletal muscles is carried out through the special system of conducting fibers running from the cerebellum to the front horns spinal cord, where originate motor nerves of the peripheral skeletal muscles.
Pathology. With the defeat of the cerebellum primarily develop disorders of the coordinated activity of skeletal muscles, namely: the lack of coordination of voluntary movements, and imbalances of the body. The first group of cerebellar movement disorders manifested violations smooth movements of the limbs (mostly hand) and, in particular, the appearance of shaky (see) at the end of purposeful motion; in a speech disorders (so-called staccato speech, which appears not semantic, and rhythmic arrangement of accents in words); in slowness of voluntary movements and speech; in the change of handwriting. Cerebellar imbalance is manifested mainly in the dizziness and the change of gait (see Ataxia)that acquires the character of a drunken person's movement, and the patient staggers to the side of the lesion. All of these disorders are sometimes accompanied by nystagmus (twitching eyeballs at their disposal).
Common symptom of cerebellar lesions is a disorder of the coordinated activity of muscles, belonging to different muscle groups, with their participation in one of the motor act.
This Sinergia of muscles of the legs and torso is manifested, for example, when you try patient without hands get into a sitting position from lying.
Among cerebellar tumors are most often found infiltrative growing benign tumors, astrocytomas, angioretikulez.

medulloblastoma of cerebellum
Medulloblastoma

From malignant tumors M. the first place belongs to medulloblastoma, sarcomas. Tumors of the cerebellum are subject to surgical treatment. With open and closed craniocerebral injury can be mechanical damage to the fabric of the cerebellum. tumor major focal hematoma, located in the posterior cranial fossa. It is shown surgery to remove a hematoma.
In some cases, after suffering meningitis, after resorption hemorrhage, traumatic origin atrophy of the cerebellum.
Surgical treatment of diseases of the cerebellum. Operations in the cerebellum produce when it tumours, abscesses, cysts, hemorrhage, traumatic injuries. The patient on the operating table , face down, on his side or sitting. Anesthesia General endotracheal anesthesia or local anesthesia. To access the cerebellum is most often used arched, vertical or combined incision in the occipital region and impose trepanation hole. After opening of the Dura is becoming well chosen cerebellum, tonsils and part of the medulla oblongata. Further progress depends on the pathology (removal of the tumor, abscess, vnutrisustavno hematoma, and so on). All manipulation of the cerebellum must be carried out very carefully and cautiously because of the proximity of the brain stem to the vital centers (breathing, circulation).
Care after the operation - see the Postoperative period.