To understand the laws of the structure and functioning of human body is necessary to understand, what is the place of man in nature. The position of man in nature is determined by the history of its origin, which is currently studied thoroughly.
At the dawn of civilization was created various fantastic views about the origin of man. Already in those days, there has been two fundamentally different attempts at explanation. On the one hand, created various legends, which was based, the idea of the creation of man by some higher, supernatural forces, God (or gods). Such, for example, the religious teaching of the ancient Babylonians, who had claimed that the man was slalen from clay, mixed with the blood of God Bela. Very similar to the famous legend of the biblical parable of the creation of man, appeared much later and received are known to be very widespread. On the other hand, many thought that man is descended from animals. This explanation was a kind of forerunner of modern views on the origin of man.
Many scholars of antiquity did not satisfy the religious legends, based on pure fiction. However, in order appeared genuinely scientific representation about the origin of man, not enough was General considerations and comparisons with various animals. Gradually, with the accumulation of more exact information in the field of human anatomy, as well as the development of Zoology, botany, geography, Geology, paleontology * and other Sciences was collected enormous factual material on the basis of which was to make attempts scientific generalizations, to create a General picture of the world of living nature. This huge work was done by famous Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778).
In the created classification of plants and animals, which formed the basis of all modern ideas about the relationships in the world of living beings, man and apes were assigned to one group. Thus, willingly or unwillingly Linnaeus ranked person the higher mammals, determined that he is the closest to the apes. And although Linnaeus believed in the creation of all living God and believed that the world from its inception until now, there are basically unchanged, objectively, his teaching has played a very important role in the science of the origin of man.
In the XVIII century, when science has already had significant factual material in all fields of natural science, began to be questioned view upon the eternity, immutability is supposedly one of the created world, which was supported by various religious teachings. At this time, there were ideas about the development of complex phenomena in nature: to change the geological epochs, on the variability of the species of living beings, on the mutual relation between diverse phenomena of animate and inanimate nature. These ideas of the development of organic (i.e., living and inanimate nature first appeared in the works of M. C. Lomonosov, A. Kaverzneva, A. N. Radishchev, Lamarck and other scientists. Its full development they got in the XIX century in the works of the greatest naturalist Charles Darwin's the Creator of the evolution theory, which all broke the idea of the immutability of nature. The teaching of Darwin, subsequently amended and updated by researchers in future generations, has revealed and proved the existence of the immutable laws of development of nature. Charles Darwin demonstrated that all species of animals, now known as lived in any other epoch of existence of the Earth, descended from pre-existing organisms. Thus, all living beings on our planet has its own history of development, the driving force of which is the adaptation to constantly changing conditions of life. Major scientific achievement Darwin was his famous book "the Descent of man (1871), where there are compelling scientific evidence that man appeared in the process of development of living nature and the history of its formation was determined by the laws common to all living beings, "...the process of development is applicable to the man, the man occupies in nature, special provisions and represents only the latest and most advanced link in the chain of life". Thus, the person bound by ties of blood relationship with animals, and first of all with monkeys, which, in the words of Darwin, are the close relatives of the person. Scientists, paleontologists believe that man and modern apes (chimpanzees and gorillas) are descended from a common ancestor (monkeys-Tripitaka)who lived several million years ago. F. Engels, in his famous work "the Role of labor in the transition from APE to man" (1871) has made a significant contribution to the development of Darwin's theory. He proved that the leading point in the transformation of the ancients, now no longer existing, apes in the ancestors of modern man was work.
* Paleontology - the science that studies the ancient (paleos - ancient), fossil forms of life.