People with split lip

In 1847 in Leipzig, in the laboratory of Professor Ernst Weber came to familiarize with new studies, doctor of medicine from Marburg Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig. Karl Ludwig was thirty, he graduated from Marburg University. Looking at the portrait of this short-sighted, asteniceski folded person, characterized by unusual modesty and shyness, it is difficult to assume that in his narrow chest was hidden fire temperament.
The third child in the family of a retired cavalry, Karl lived his University years, not without incident. One of them was a duel with swords (generally accepted among German students of that time, but Ludwig... Ludwig its kind, delicate, even refined person, his character... But the scar on his lip - life testimonies of the incident remained). Among students of Marburg there was a political group, which came and Ludwig. Public performances of young men led to the expulsion from the University for a year.
The visit of Ludwig in Leipzig was caused by a desire to get acquainted closer with the physiology of blood circulation. It was part of his tour to German universities. Then he did not know that the laboratory Ernst Heinrich Weber is the future laboratory largest physiologist Europe Karl Ludwig.
Leipzig, then Berlin. In Berlin Ludwig met with their closest associates by Johannes Muller, Hermann Helmholtz, Emil du Bois-Reymond and Ernst Bridge. The senior of them, Muller, already famous scientist, one of the greatest psychologists of his time, has managed to provide substantial support to four friends.
After wandering in the departments of physiology of the German and Swiss universities Ludwig was the successor of Ernst Weber (on the occasion of his retirement in 1865). Affably met by the scientific community of Leipzig, Ludwig turned to the government asking much to create a specialized physiological research Institute, which was built and began to work 10 months after the filing of the petition. Big two-storey building with basement was built the "rest" and contained physiological, histological, chemical and physical laboratories, a vivarium, operating, sterilization, as well as a large library, which simultaneously served as Director's office and was passing (!). The entrance to the library was always free. Soon the Institute has become a centre of academic life in Germany and around the world. It was the kind of world school of physiology. Would come here from all countries not entrants, and Mature scholars. They were attracted by the huge scientific authority Ludwig, his extensive knowledge and intuition, he never changed, they were attracted by the unselfish devotion of Ludwig science. The atmosphere in the Institute, which can be judged by the planning and building project was created with direct participation of Ludwig), was a democratic atmosphere and grandfather. Free communication at any time with such scientists as Ludwig,is something worth!
The Institute was well equipped with due not so much the administrative action as the inventive genius of the Director: before physiologist could only observe the phenomenon, kymograph Ludwig allowed to register this phenomenon on paper and later analyze the record. This gave experimenters new possibilities, and kymograph immediately found application in all physiological laboratories of the world.
Among the variables that are most often been the subject of research, in those days, perhaps the most important was the blood pressure. It is usually measured mercury manometer Poiseuille flow. Manometer Ludwig with float and check on a thin straw allowed to record the dynamics of pressure in the arteries. Kinografika record has been using the drum slowly rotating and pulled the tape from sooty chalk overlay paper. The slightest touch of a check box to her left clear white trail. Kymograph, this simple device, driven by clockwork, faithfully served the physiologists at least a hundred years. However, do not rule out that today anybody uses this convenient device, in some ways more convenient than modern electronic recorders.
Studying the circulation, Ludwig already used substances which could prevent the clotting of blood in pipes and tubes. He managed to create the first device that measures the amount of blood flowing through the arteries in unit time ("blood watch" Ludwig). Plethysmograph (a device for measuring crowneplaza veins), as used today, built by the Italian physiologist Angelo Mosso in the Ludwig Institute, and under his guidance.
Ivan Mikhailovich Sechenov created here his famous gas pump. Here for the first time reached its viability and efficiency of isolated organs (heart, muscles, lungs, liver, bowels), laid the Foundation for the conservation of organs and tissues have been many subtle biochemical studies. Institute Ludwig began to study the permeability of cell membranes for different substances at different conditions.
In the field of circulation Ludwig, of course, also worked very intensively. In 1848 he described the pacemaker frog's heart ("pace" - step, "make"to do; "pacemaker" - specifies a step - name proglanguage in the British army).
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov found strengthens the nerves of the heart also in the Ludwig Institute. Ludwig together with English physiologist tiree tentatively set, in what area of the medulla oblongata is the center, supporting blood pressure. In a few years, it said Russian physiologist F. Century Ovsyannikov also in the Ludwig Institute. Ludwig was engaged in research of such centres and in the spinal cord. It would be a long time to list all of physiology, which worked Ludwig or its employees and students.
The life and work of Ludwig coincided with a happy period in European physiology. Universities, research laboratories and institutions have multiplied, and funds of private individuals, patrons already been lacking on their content. However, scientific equipment has not reached prohibitive complexity and cost, and support governments that have begun to subsidize science, enough for rapid scientific progress. Favorable conditions allowed to realize their potential a number of talented scientists, but also against this background brightly distinguished figure Ludwig, a man of extremely talented, inspired materialist, teachers with a high reputation, had democracy in its higher manifestation (although Ludwig mockingly called this his line sentimentality). Close friendship and constant scientific contacts with Helmholtz and Dubois-Reymond helped Ludwig consider the phenomenon from the position not only physiological, but also with chemical, physical and even physical-chemical, although physical chemistry yet to be born. Therefore, a large number of scientists who sought to work under the leadership of Ludwig, cannot be accurately calculated. We know among them about sixty Russian physiologists and many researchers of the West. Generously giving ideas, constantly watching over their incarnation and usually performing the most difficult part of the job, Ludwig did not consider himself a collaborator on his account less than fifty publications.
Not very inclined to worship before the authorities, I. P. Pavlov called him "the great Ludwig". Perhaps, only Claude Bernard caused Ivan Petrovich same fascination. As the Claude Bernard, he wrote Ludwig: "All Your students, with whom I met here in Paris, without exception outstanding. And so I am really is, especially as their teacher, I have great sympathy and admiration... Mr. Sechenov, which will give You this letter,a charming young man and a great scientist..."