Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury and mechanical damage of the bones of the skull and brain. Mainly occurs in the home, in the production of failure to comply with safety, to transport accidents with the defeat of a firearm or bladed weapon.
In traumatic brain injury brain (see) suffers not only in the place of application of mechanical force, but in remote areas as the brain shifts in the skull cavity in the direction of the shot and injured again about the processes of the firm cerebral environment, exposed to protivoparaz and hydrodynamic fluctuations. Under the influence of injury disturbed function of nerve cells in the brain, changes his blood and liquorrhea. In nerve cells develop braking, violated their relationship. In the brain first celebrated spasm and development of primary anemia of the brain, and then the vessels dilate, change the permeability of the vascular wall, increases or decreases intracranial pressure. Developing infringement of brain blood supply, oxygen starvation of nerve cells, disruption of water-sharing contribute to the development of edema and swelling of the brain that aggravate the course of craniocerebral injury and cause dysfunction of all body systems. Along with cerebral can develop and local changes of the brain in the form of injury, hemorrhage or crush zone of separate areas, which determines the development of neurological symptoms and syndromes.
There are closed and open craniocereberal trauma.

Traumatic brain injury and mechanical damage content cerebral cranium with simultaneous fracture or without fracture. Two main points cause particular damage, intracranial content: the nature of the impact of traumatic agent and complexity of intracranial topography. The brain is capable of moving in a cavity of a skull, affected not only in the place and in the direction of impact, but also in other areas.
All of craniocerebral trauma divided into open and closed. Closed injuries of skull and brain include all kinds of injuries with intact skin or when the injured soft tissues of the skull, but without damaging his bones. In these conditions (excluding fractures sinus and ear) the possibility of infection Dura and small brain.
Open craniocerebral injury should be seen as primary bacterial contaminated.

The diagnosis. For diagnosis, all affected with craniocerebral trauma are hospitalized and comprehensive investigation: surgical, neurological and x-ray in which it is necessary to identify the nature and extent of damage to the soft tissues of the head, the presence of possible associated injuries to other organs, the degree of brain damage and violation of the integrity of the skull bones. Is spinal tap (see), which allows to determine the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid (see), the presence of blood in the cerebrospinal fluid and its composition. Each patient, especially with severe craniocerebral trauma in the dynamics register indicators pulse, respiration, blood pressure, temperature.