Closed craniocerebral injury

  • Features of craniocerebral trauma in boxers
  • Closed, this is called brain injury, in which the soft tissues and bones of the skull are still intact or partially damaged (injured soft tissues, bones crack). Any restricted brain injury should always be considered as serious. With a closed craniocerebral injury, as in the brain and throughout the body, to develop complex pathophysiological processes, and in some cases has increased intracranial pressure, others his fall; often, a breach of cerebral circulation.
    Full statistical data about closed craniocerebral injuries in athletes in the literature, we did not find. Most of the authors indicate that the athletes they range from 12 to 18 % of all injuries. Most often closed craniocerebral injury, including re-occur in Boxing, Cycling and equestrian sport, slalom, jumps on skis from a springboard, handball, football, artistic gymnastics.
    Regardless of the severity of the injury causes scattered structural changes in the brain. In some cases they are reversible, others come persistent disorders. Clinical and experimental research Yu. L. Kurako (1973, 1979) found that in the acute period of the injury comes deformation of the walls of the brain vessels (arterioles, capillaries, venules), there is a violation of venous blood flow.
    200 years doctors use classification French doctor Petit, who gave $ 3 form of closed brain injury: a concussion (commotio), injury (contusio) and compression (compressio). This classification is convenient for practical use, reflects the Genesis of pathological changes and determines clinical characteristics of the patient.
    Brain injury severe often combined with cracks and fractures of the code and skull base, damage of the meninges and blood vessels. At the turn of the pyramid of the temporal bone there is bleeding from the ear: in addition, in cracks and fractures of the skull base can be severe symptoms from the side of the cranial nerves, bleeding from the ears, nose, mouth, meningeal symptoms, eye bruising ("points") in the absence of local injury, nasal and ear likwore.
    With timely hospitalization and proper treatment of clinical symptoms of traumatic brain injury are gradually decreasing. The timing of clinical recovery is very individual. After discharge from hospital patients for a long time complain of headaches, dizziness, poor sleep, memory loss and health. This is due to a violation of cortical-subcortical relationship, one manifestation of which is the disorder of the functions of stem and vegetative formations. In a cavity of a skull violated normal venous hemodynamics and liquorodynamics. In the remote period of craniocerebral trauma, especially moderate and severe, there are mental disorders and mental decline.
    Causes of closed craniocerebral injuries in athletes are presented in table. 19.

    Table 19. Causes of closed craniocerebral injuries in athletes
    Causes of injuries The number of cases
    Anti-lock brakes. number % of the total surveyed
    Injuries from the enemy in combat
    The fall
    Defects logistics
    Poor refereeing, violation of discipline
    Street, transport and household injuries
    Just 366 100

    Cerebral concussion mild had 318 people (87%), middle - 29 (8%), heavy-19 persons (5%). B92% of cases of traumatic brain injury was accompanied by loss of consciousness from 1 to 2 min to 1 h and more. Among the symptoms that characterize persistent effects of closed craniocerebral injuries, especially moderate and severe, experienced spontaneous horizontal nystagmus (20 %), anisocoria (35%), varicose veins or narrowing of the arteries of the fundus (10%), persistent hypertension (4 %).