Writing spasm

Writing spasm - a disorder of the functions of the letter, while maintaining all other movements that are performed by the same hand muscles. The disease occurs in adulthood and is connected with professional overload at fast letter in uncomfortable conditions. Writing spasm in children is not observed. Violation of the letter caused tonic voltage single muscle involved in the act of writing. Developing spasm painful and leads to an unnatural pose hands, at which further letter becomes impossible. Along with this the rest of the hand movements are saved and outside the conditions of the letter are executed normally. Ill try to write with the left hand, but soon it begins to develop a cramp.
Etiology writing spasm long been unclear, and only the teaching of I. P. Pavlov about the higher nervous activity and about the possibility of a nervous breakdown isolated dynamic complexes clarified in the origin of the process. Currently believe that writing spasm same neurosis, as stuttering, compulsive movements, tics.
Diagnosis is sometimes presents difficulties in differentiation of writing spasm to local forms of torsion dystonia (see). In the latest spasm develops at all movements. Sick of writing spasm is necessary to consult a neurologist.
Treatment is directed at the regulation of the higher nervous activity of the patient, combined with restorative therapy: designate a sedative - preparations of Valerian, bromine with caffeine, etc. are special exercises aimed at the formation of a new stereotype of writing.

Writing spasm - isolated disorder synergy groups of muscles of the hands involved in certain motor acts (the letter), while all other movements performed by the same muscle groups are stored. P.F. called professional stress and belongs to the group of professional seizures. When writing a spasm is improper distribution of muscle tone for individual muscle groups, leading to the development of various pathological installations, preventing the letter that gives the basis to consider these disorders dyskinesia.
The etiology and pathogenesis of P.F. long remained unclear. Initially assumed pure organic nature of the process. In the study, patients were uncovered a wide variety of local anomalies in the form neuritis, myositis, periostitis affected hand. Also noted and spondylarthrosis cervical spine, cervical ribs and other Spasm was considered a manifestation of organic defect. Further examination revealed in patients with a range of neurotic disorders, which gives more reason to include writing spasm to the field of neuroses. Later, it was found that the origin of P.F. lays stress irritable and braking processes and their mobility in the nerve cells of the cortical motor analyzer of hand muscles, leading to disruption to their synergistic activity mechanism, similar to the formation of neuroses. In the field of motor analyzer of the cortex of the brain, a pathological focus, which leads to disorder of a particular group movements, while all other functions that depend on the same analyzer, remain. This is an isolated disorder synergy muscle is more common in people with light organic defects in the system centers and ways motion analyzer, as sick cells more easily than healthy, lead to disruption and disorder synergies.
The disease usually develops in adulthood and is equally affects both men and women. History of the sick always possible to find indications that before the beginning of the disease they had to write in uncomfortable conditions and in a hurry. When writing a spasm upset habitual movements associated with defined automated synergies muscles of the shoulder, forearms and toes. In the emerging dystonia upset combined movement as a brush and fingers, and moving the right hand, due to external rotation of the shoulder. Is the tonic voltage antagonistic muscle groups that normally do not participate in the act of writing, and when its reduction prevent the letter. Often develops convulsive pronation brush at which the letter becomes impossible. Special difficulties arise from the violation of synergy flexion and extension movements of the fingers with external rotation of the shoulder.
There are four forms of writing spasm: pain, shaking, spastic and paralytic. However, this division is artificial. Usually, all of these elements are intertwined. In the study of other neurological function no issues detected. The disease long. Retraining letter left hand usually does not reach the goal as quickly P.F. develops in these muscle groups.
Differential diagnosis of P.F. presents significant difficulties in separating him from local forms of torsion dystonia. The latter often occurs in children and is usually treated as P.F. However, it is known that children P.F. not get sick. In addition, the disease in these cases progresses rapidly and often turns into a generalized form. When local torsion dystonia misallocation of muscle tone seen in other movements of the hands and is accompanied by changes in muscle tone hands and alone (see Torsion spasm).
Treatment for writing spasm very difficult. Basically it consists in retraining using the writing of new synergies. Use a variety of exercises aimed at relaxation of the muscles of the shoulder girdle and training of letters with use for needs of movement other combination of muscles. To remove spastic condition of the muscles recommend physical therapy in the form of galvanization, diathermy, paraffin baths and massage. At the same time it is necessary to reduce the total increased nervous anxiety medication (bromine with caffeine, andaxin). Now also and treatment extended sleep. The syndrome is extremely resistant, and treatment should be prolonged. Especially important early prevention at the slightest sign of professional dyskinesias.
Disabled patients whose activity is not connected with the act of writing is retained.