Chlorinated hydrocarbons

Chlorinated hydrocarbonsused in industry, in groups: I) chlorinated hydrocarbons, fatty number, cycloparaffins and cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons; II) chlorinated hydrocarbons aromatic series; (III) chlorinated hydrocarbons multicore hydrocarbons.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons (I group dichloroethane, methyl chloride, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene and other) mostly colorless liquid. Used as solvents rubber, oils, fats, esters, cellulose, for degreasing of parts and other solubility in water is very small, all connections are well soluble in alcohol and ether, when they come in contact with an open flame formed phosgene. The nature of biological effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons group I belong to drugs that damage parenchymatous organs and especially the liver. Special place chloride methyl - strong nervous poison, causing education in the body of methyl alcohol. Acute poisoning them is developing a state of excitement, of the gab, a peculiar sensation extension language, increased body temperature, and sometimes there is a slight squint and nystagmus. In severe cases, can develop coma and death. Chronic poisoning is a common symptom - drowsiness (people sleep up to 24 hours a day). From applied in industry chlorinated hydrocarbons I group is the least toxic methylene chloride. Derivatives of ethylene - vinyl chloride, 1,2 - dichlorethylene, trichloroethylene - called organic nerve diseases. All chlorinated hydrocarbons I group cause irritation of the skin, mucous membranes of eyes and upper respiratory tract, especially allyl chloride and chloroprene. Chlorinated hydrocarbons I group deep into the body through the intact skin. MAC widely used chlorinated hydrocarbons I group the following: dichloroethane - 10 mg/m3, methylene chloride 5 mg/mA tetrachloride carbon-20 mg/m3, trichloroethylene - 10 mg/m3.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons aromatic series (chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene, benzyl chloride, benzotrichloride and others) - liquids with high boiling points or rigid body with specific gravity more than 1, insoluble in water, relatively easily soluble in alcohol, have an intense odor. Applied in industry as a solvent, mainly resins for the production of coal dyes, aromatic substances, artificial tanning agent, plastics and other
The toxic properties of these compounds is the dysfunction of the nervous system, liver, kidneys, blood system is growing with increased degree of chlorination of benzene nucleus, as well as the increase of chlorine in the side chain. Chlorinated hydrocarbons aromatic series, especially benzyl chloride, are irritating to the skin, mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract and eyes. The working marked persistent headaches, dizziness, vegetative disorders, conjunctivitis. MAC chlorinated hydrocarbons aromatic series following: chlorobenzene - 50.0 mg/m3, dichlorobenzene - 20 mg/m3, trichlorobenzene - 10.0 mg/m3, benzotrichloride 0.2 mg/m3, benzyl chloride, 0.5 mg/m3. Chlorinated hydrocarbons multicore hydrocarbons chlorinated biphenyls, 4,4-DDT), chlorinated naphthalenes, Clorinda, heptachloride and others - are solids or liquids with high boiling point, practically insoluble in acetone, benzene, ether, have low vapor pressure. Applied in industry as substitutes waxes, resins, for the insulation of the wires for the manufacture of capacitors, insecticides and other Chlorinated naphthalenes, biphenyls act on the skin, contributing to the emergence of photocontact dermatitis (see Dermatitis", actinic) and follicular lesions apparatus; cause the phenomenon of toxic hepatitis, sometimes with the outcome in acute or subacute dystrophy of the liver. DDT, lorinden, heptachlor, Aldrin, dieldrin cause changes in the nervous system, internal organs, especially the liver, kidneys.
Adopted in the USSR maximum allowable concentrations are for chlorinated nattalynnov: higher-0.5 mg/m3for DDT-0.1 mg/m3, Aldrin, dieldrin, floridana - 0.01 mg/m3, heptachlor - 0.01 mg/m3, Prevention and first aid in case of poisoning chlorinated hydrocarbons - see Aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, Benzol.

Chlorinated hydrocarbons are the extensive group of chemical compounds with high reactivity. Chlorinated hydrocarbons are divided into the following main groups: 1) chlorinated hydrocarbons, fatty number, cycloparaffins and cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons; 2) chlorinated hydrocarbons aromatic series (see Aromatic hydrocarbons), 3) chlorinated multicore hydrocarbons.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons first group is used as solvents rubber (see Rubber manufacturing), oils, fats, waxes, waxes, esters, cellulose, for the extraction of fats and alkaloids, degreasing of parts, as refrigerants, insecticides and solvents insectofungicides etc. They are initial materials in many organic synthesis. It is largely a colorless liquid, slightly soluble in water, well, in alcohol and ether. When they come in contact with open flames, hot surfaces etc., formed phosgene.
The nature of chlorinated hydrocarbons in this group are related to drugs. They also damage the parenchymal organs and especially the liver.
After a single high concentrations, and chronic exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons there are significant disorders of the liver, kidneys, heart muscle and other internal organs as fat and protein dystrophies. This delay causes include these substances among the very dangerous industrial poisons. Derivatives of ethylene (vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichlorethylene, trichloroethylene), containing the molecule multiple bond, apparently, do not cause fatty dystrophy of internal organs due to the faster and the special character of their transformations in the body. However, some of them (especially trichloroethylene) if inhaled in high concentrations cause persistent lesions of the nervous system (paralysis of the trigeminal nerve, the damage of the optic nerve, taste and smell). Sometimes these changes are developing and chronic poisoning.
Special place in the industrial toxicology chloride methyl - strong nervous poison, causing education in the body of methyl alcohol. He has a first stimulant, then paralysing effect on the cells of the cerebral cortex. In severe cases may develop a coma and die. A common symptom of chronic poisoning drowsiness.
From applied in the industry of organochlorine solvents less toxic is methylene chloride. Specific harmful effects are only applying technical product containing impurities dichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride and other toxic chlorinated.
All chlorinated hydrocarbons irritate the skin, mucous membranes of eyes and upper respiratory tract. The last action is most pronounced in allyl chloride (CH2=SEIN2Cl).
The chloroprene (CH2=СClСН=CH2) also has a significant irritant properties and, in addition, cause hair loss, which, apparently, is connected with the action of the products of its polymerization. The most sensitive to chloroprene Central nervous system, especially its Department vegetative; also affected and the endocrine system. In the study of the acetylcholine-cholinesterase and histamine-histaminase systems in the blood of the workers employed in the production of chloroprene, identified a certain correlation between the severity of clinical manifestations of intoxication and content of mediators and related enzymes in the blood. Chlorinated hydrocarbons easily enter the body through intact skin.
Of chlorinated hydrocarbons aromatic series in industry the most widely used chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene, trichlorobenzene (see Benzene), benzyl chloride, chloride Bansal, benzotrichloride. They are liquids with high boiling points, or solid body with a specific gravity greater than one, insoluble in water, relatively easily soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, have an intense specific smell. Applied in industry as a solvent mainly resins for the production of coal dyes, aromatic substances, artificial tanning agent, plastics, pharmaceuticals are original products of the compounds used as the initiators of polymerisation, and for pest control (global) as insecticides. Trichlorobenzene is part of sovtol - mixtures of sovol and 25% trichlorobenzene; it has a narcotic effect, causing both the liver, kidneys and blood system. Acute poisoning toluene chlorinated (see), especially trichlorobenzene, animals first excited, then become dumb, appear cramps, death comes with symptoms of pulmonary edema.


Chronic exposure to chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons calls in experiment on animals the fall of body weight, lower blood pressure, lowering of body temperature, reducing the number of leukocytes in the blood, an increase of reticulocytes, degenerative changes in the liver, kidney. Working with chlorinated aromatic series may be persistent headaches, dizziness, vegetative disorders, conjunctivitis. When working with benzotrichloride workers may have professional dermatitis.
From the one multicore hydrocarbons in the industry is relatively widely used chlorinated biphenyls, 4,4-dichlorodiphenylethane-ethane (DDT) (see Disinfectants), chlorinated naphthalenes, lorinden, heptachlor, Aldrin, dieldrin. This is solids and liquids with high boiling point, practically insoluble in water, soluble in acetone, benzene, ether. Chlorinated naphthalenes, biphenyls act on the skin, causing photocontact dermatitis and defeat follicular unit. They also cause the phenomenon of toxic hepatitis sometimes with the outcome in acute or subacute dystrophy of the liver. DDT, lorinden, heptachlor, Aldrin, dieldrin cause changes in the nervous system. The connection does not have a local effect, however, can easily penetrate the body through the intact skin.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the most highly hazardous industrial poisons, so the most radical way of prevention is to replace them with less toxic and non-toxic substances.
When working with pesticides is promising research selectively acting insecticides, little toxic for humans. Work with chlorinated hydrocarbons should be mechanized and be held in closed facilities that ensure the continuity of the technological process and no contact with them. The operations manual should be in shelters equipped with mechanical ventilation. In some cases it is necessary to equip the General exchange ventilation. The control over a course of technological process should be performed automatically and remotely. Great importance of individual prevention measures: delivery of overalls, protection means of respiratory organs (masks, respirators), instruction of workers on safety and industrial hygiene, preliminary and periodic medical examinations, treatment-and-prophylactic nutrition. Cm. also Poisoning, industrial Poisons.