Cholecystitis, cholelithiasis

The term " cholecystitis" (cholecystitis) to denote the inflammation of the gallbladder.
The first written mention Gentelis de Foligno on gall stones refers to the XIV century, the First treatise on this subject written Sylvaticus in 1314 By the witness Morgagni (1760), the researchers marked the beginning of studying of a bile stone disease, should be recognized Vater, Benevieni (1420), Vesalius (XVI century).
Description of gallstones made Morgagni in 1760, and currently meets all requirements. Moreover, he first drew attention to the change of the gallbladder and jelchnokamenna disease. Gembsbach (1856) was considered an inflammation of the gall bladder cause of stone formation. The specified point of view, especially vigorously developed in 1892 Naunin and P. Solonnikov (1906). However Asclioff and Bachmeister (1909) established the possibility of formation of stones in a sterile bile. Thus, it was shown that the main mass of cholesterol stones fall from the bile, with which he comes from the liver.
At the same time Riedel (1909) described the cases of cholecystitis without stones; in 1922, O. S. Beketovoy was published a major study on this subject.
The further development of ideas about cholelithiasis and cholecystitis and their treatment, we are obliged to Russian surgeons: S. P. Fedorov, A. C. Martynov, I. G. Rufanova and some German researchers: Kehr, Korte and many others.
Cholecystitis is one of the most common diseases of the digestive system.
According to K. J. Shkhvatsabaia (1959), C. H. and I. Vasilenko, Kochergina (1963), diseases of the bile ducts in the USSR in the period 1954-1959, was 6.0-7,2 per 1000 population, which is almost twice the incidence of peptic ulcer disease.
According to Hess (1961) , in Central Europe stones are found in 15 - 18% of all adults. On average, the stones have a sixth of the world population and one-eighth of its owner are the cause of death. A quarter of all people older than 60 years and one third over 70 years of age are carriers of gallstones.
Gallstones are found in all ages, from children under the age of 20 years, they are rare (I. Magyar, 1962; C. D. Ternovskii, 1959, and others).
Women have 5-6 times more often than men (S. P. Fedorov, 1934; I. G. of Rufanov, 1926).
Information about the frequency of cholecystitis, flowing with cholelithiasis and without stones. Sherlick (1957) believes that the stones are available in 96% of patients with cholecystitis. Popper and Schaffner (1957) indicate 85%, according to I. G. Rufanova (1926) - 30% of cholecystitis are acalculous. No doubt that in patients treated conservatively, so-called acalculous cholecystitis are more frequent than in patients operated on.