Prophylaxis of plague

In fighting the plague of preventive measures is given to the main place. Outbreaks of plague in the country may be due to either infecting people in natural foci, or be a result of incursions from outside the sick person or rats, arriving from affected areas. According to this system of prevention, the aim of which is to prevent or minimise the likelihood of human exposure and prevention of possible development of a single disease in the outbreak, consists of two complexes of preventive measures. The first of them has as its objective the prevention of diseases of the people with a plague natural foci on the territory of the country, the second is to prevent skidding plague from abroad.
In the USSR activities in natural foci assigned to the network of territorial anti-plague institutions. Among them are scientific and research antiplague institutes, anti-plague station, located in the regions and republics, and anti-plague Department, subordinate to these stations and placed on the territory served by the station.
If necessary, stations, and branches form a seasonal epidemic control units. To preventive work in the centers involved and unspecialized medical establishments.
Observance of quarantine rules supervise and carry out quarantine and sanitary-epidemiological stations of the Maritime ports. In the most threatened ports, in addition, there are anti-plague laboratory. On the ground, receiving the aircraft of foreign airlines, and in places of crossing land borders are sanitary checkpoints. These institutions carry out activities, aimed at preventing skidding plague infection from outside, in accordance with the rules of sanitary protection of the borders of the USSR.
The list of interventions in natural foci is the following: epidemiological surveillance; the extermination of rodents; the extermination of fleas; vaccination threatened contingents; sanitary-educational work among the population.
Epidemiological surveillance has as its objective supervision over the numbers of rodents and parasitic fleas, the case of rodents, bacteriological examination of rodents and fleas in the presence of the plague pathogen, supervision of health condition of the population with the purpose of timely detection of cases. In those districts where there are camels, should be bacteriological examination on the plague in their case or forced the slaughter.
Measures on extermination of rodents can be carried out with the purpose of temporary prevention of plague or complete elimination of ansiotie in this natural focus. In the first case, there are current prevention, when the destruction of rodents is conducted with the existing epidemic, and early (distant) prevention, with the task of preventing the plague. For the destruction of rodents apply seed Nord gases or poisoned baits. The choice of method depends on the type of animals (see Deratization).
Disinsection Nord is necessary for the current prevention, because without this survivors fleas come from holes in search of new owners, and thus increasing the likelihood of attacks on people. Besides, while checking the empty holes healthy animals epizooty may flare up again. When making advance (remote) prevention disinsection measures are not needed. Disinsection Nord (propilivanija inputs) is ustami DDT and HCH.
In the settlements located on the territory of natural foci, where there is a danger of involvement in epizooty of synanthropic rodents, you want to protect residential homes, commercial and industrial buildings from penetration of these animals and periodically deratization and disinsection.
Vaccination of the population against plague can not eliminate the cause of outbreaks among people and therefore should be considered as a supplementary measure in the system of preventive measures. However, in some countries where systematic control of rodents and vector control, requiring much effort and resources, cannot be conducted, and where it is impossible radical improvement of the living conditions of the population, vaccination is the only means of prevention.
For anti-plague immunization use live and killed vaccines. The most widespread live vaccine from strain EV, dedicated Girard and Robic (G. Girard, J. Robic). The vaccine is applied subcutaneous and cutaneous methods. Is entered only once (see Immunization). The duration of the generated immunity for up to a year, but in an unfavourable epidemiological situations, the booster is recommended after 6 months.
In the USSR wide vaccination of the population in natural foci currently not carried out. Are immunized only those persons who are exposed to the immediate danger of infection (herdsmen, hunters, rural population, workers of the anti-plague stations). In some countries, are killed vaccines. So, in India, is used exclusively a killed vaccine Khavkin, in the USA, and also formal-vaccine.

An important role in the prevention of plague belongs sanitary-educational work. The public should be informed about the availability of epizootics, about the dangers posed by rodents and their fleas, sick camels and some predators. It is necessary to acquaint the population with the rules of individual protection. You should explain the need for immediate treatment to a doctor at occurrence of diseases accompanied by fever and education of Bubnov.
Preventive anti-plague activities in seaports, airports and rail stations where there is a risk of importation from abroad, is regulated by special rules developed by the USSR Ministry of health taking into account existing international conventions (see Sanitary protection of the territory). These activities include: notification of quarantine authorities about suspicious plague cases; medical examination of cases; sanitary inspection of vehicles, baggage, cargo and passengers; the identification and isolation of patients and persons suspected to be infected with plague; observation came into contact with them; bacteriological investigation of suspected plague objects (material from sick or dead bodies, rodents and their ectoparasite); vaccinations; on the testimony - disinfection and disinsection.
To prevent skidding plague infection with rats systematically deratization ships calling at the disadvantaged on plague ports.
In addition, you must destroy rats on the territory of the port itself and the port cities, to take measures to prevent the migration of rats from ships in the port and back, to ensure the impossibility of the penetration of rats on ships and port constructions ("carisoprodolcheapest").
Upon detection of rats on ships are deratization and disinfection.
An indispensable condition of prevention of escalation of individual cases of plague in the epidemic - rapid identification of the patient and timely implementation of measures on localization center.
System of measures in the focus of the sum of the following items. Victims of the plague necessarily hospitalized in a plague hospital, which is deployed in the place of the appearance of diseases. If it is impossible immediate admission to hospital must be sought the possibility of isolation of the patient from the surrounding violence. Specific treatment should be started immediately. Persons who were in contact with patients infected with things corpse, are isolated. Persons who were in contact with a patient with pulmonary plague, individually isolated. In cases where the disease is detected bubonic or septic form may group accommodation Karantinnaya persons; duration insulation - 6 days, but recently raised the question about the prolongation of the term of up to 9 days. For adjoined necessarily specific preventive treatment. Imposed quarantine (prohibition of entry and exit) on the community, which registered the disease, if there is no confidence in the identification and isolation of all patients and in contact with them. Conducted observation of the population (systematic observation over the state of health of inhabitants of the settlement, which had the disease), as well as disinfection, disinsection and deratization in the hearth of the disease.
The focus of plague is considered to be liquidated after discharge the last survivor of the patient and disinfection of the hearth (disinfection, disinsection, deratization).