Classical massage

Classical massage includes the following basic techniques.
Stroking. Depending on the size and shape massaged area stroking is done one or two hands, fingers, palms, the rear surface of the palm and fingers. There are planar surface and deep) and bow stroke (continuous and intermittent); and a number of secondary methods: grablevsky, sizeably, Ironing and others (Fig. 1, 1-5). Reception is carried out slowly, rhythmically, in the course of blood; swelling of extremities stroking produce overlying departments, and then in the underlying direction of muscle fibers. Power pressure greatest in areas with a sufficient amount of body fat, muscle and in the field of large vessels, and the lowest in places bony prominence. Stroking begins and ends with a massage.
classical massage in pictures

Fig. 1. Massage techniques. 1-5 - stroking: 1 - planar surface, 2 - plane deep, 3 - bow continuous, 4 - grebneobraznoi, 5 - Ironing; 6 and 7 - rubbing: 6 - longitudinal direction of the massage movements, 7 - circular direction massage movements; 8-13 - kneading: 8 - continuous - longitudinal direction of the massage movements, 9 and 10 - continuous - transverse direction of the massage movements, 11 - spiral direction of the massage movements, 12 - milling, 13 - rolling; 14 - hack; 15 - continuous vibration.

Rubbing - more energetic reception than stroking. Performed by fingers, palms base of the palm, the edge of the palm, fist, one or two hands simultaneously. Rubbing runs longitudinally or transversely, circular, zigzag or spiral. Auxiliary methods of grinding: sawing, stroking, planing, sizeably, grablevsky and other techniques (Fig. 1, 6 and 7). Rubbing produce both during and against the current of blood and lymph, slower than stroking; the pressure increases with increasing angle between the hand and massaged area. Rubbing arm tissue to the following reception - kneading and combined with the stroking.
Kneading is the most complicated technique. Running fingers, thumb and forefinger, large and all of the other fingers, one or two hands. The technique involves grasping the lifting, pulling, compression and stretching of tissues. Is carried out in the longitudinal, transverse, semi-circular and spiral directions. The basic techniques kneading: continuous and intermittent. Auxiliary methods: rolling, rolling, sliding, twitching, compression, tension, etc. (Fig. 1, 5-13). The reception is to start with a lighter and surface clutches, gradually moving to a more vigorous and deep kneading, making it gently, rhythmically, slowly, in combination with the stroking, without pinch and twist it.
Vibration - reception is to give the body section of oscillatory movements. There are intermittent vibration and continuous - actually vibration. When performing intermittent vibration hand massage every time breaks away from the massaged area, resulting in vibratory motion follow each other in the form of pushes. Reception is carried out ends of the fingers, hand, the edge of the palm, fist longitudinally or transversely, zigzag or spiral. Auxiliary methods intermittent vibration: Pat, punctures, effleurage, quilting, hack (Fig. 1, 14). When conducting intermittent vibration is set to hit: oblique (applies to impact the surface underlying tissues), vertical (for influence on lie deep tissue). When performing continuous vibration hand massage therapist, not looking up from the massaged area produces rhythmic vibrational motion in one place or massaged along the entire surface. Is one, two, and all fingers (Fig. 1, 15), palm, fist. Is longitudinally or transversely, zigzag or spiral. Admission requires great skill, if improperly performed the masseur may cause various disorders that can lead to vibration disease; when execution is set the angle of the fingers - the bigger it is, the deeper and more energetic effect; the pressure on the tissues during the reception should not be painful. Auxiliary methods: shake, shake, a boost.


Fig. 2. The average physiological position in top (1) bottom (2) of the limbs.

The General requirement for all of the described techniques of massage is relaxation of muscles massaged area, which is accomplished by the so-called middle physiological position (Fig. 2). If you have dry skin, and increased its sensitivity, when immature scars to improve the massage movements is applied boric vaseline with fat and sweatiest the skin, ingrown scars - talc.
In sports practice for the implementation of stroking, rubbing need lubrication to the skin with petroleum jelly; kneading and hack produce dry skin. Ointment no use, if you want to invoke thermal, mechanical and reflex effect. For warming and to reduce pain after bruises, sprains in sports practice is recommended to RUB a mixture of equal parts of alcoholic tinctures of pepper, castor oil, one or two eggs or a mixture of half a Cup of turpentine, half a Cup of castor oil, one egg and various other complex mixtures.

Classical massage. In the technique of classical massage it is necessary to distinguish the main, auxiliary and a massage techniques.
Main - stroking, rubbing, kneading and vibration. Each of the main methods depending on clinical evidence can be used in different forms. Auxiliary massage techniques, for example grebneobraznoi, comb, wipeabate stroking, sawing, stroking when crushed, and so on, which are variants of the basic massage techniques are used to enhance or diminish their physiological actions. The choice, as well as indications for use of secondary methods depend on anatomical-topographical features massaged area (size, relief, presence of massive muscles and so on), the primary massage effect (skin, muscles, vessels, nerves), the functional state of organs, tissues and reactivity of the patient. Combined massage techniques are combined primary and secondary methods.
The leading role in massage belongs to the basic massage techniques. Execute each of them has its own peculiarities.
For strokes (Fig. 1-2) is characterized by a rolling movement do not cause noticeable shifts or stretching of tissues. Massaging hand while stroking moves slowly, slowly, rhythmically. Depending on clinical evidence stroking may be superficial (when flaccid and spastic paralysis, muscular hypotrophy, the weakening of vascular tone) or deep (with muscular contractures, stiffness of the joints), plane (if vascular dystonia) or bow (lymphostasis, peripheral edema), continuous or intermittent (at abrasions of the skin).
Subsidiary of effleurage (Fig. 3-5): comb - runs bone ribs distal ends of the main phalanges, folded into a fist (in the places of massive muscles, big fat, in areas covered by a dense fascia); Ironing rear surface of the main and middle phalanges (more lightweight effect on tissues); grebneobraznoi - Palmar surface of all straightened and placed the fingers (if necessary to spare specific areas); cross - palms of the hands (with massive muscles, big fat on the legs); wipeabate - by taking certain muscles or muscle bundles forefinger and thumb or the thumb and other fingers (selective effect on the muscles).

the technique of classical massage
the techniques of classical massage
Fig. 1. Embrace continuous stroke. Fig. 2. Deep stroking. Fig. 3. Stroking - Ironing. Fig. 4. Comb stroking. Fig. 5. Cross stroking. Fig. 6. Longitudinal grinding. Fig. 7. Circular grinding. Fig. 8. Longitudinal kneading. Fig. 9 and 10. Wipeabate kneading.
Fig. 11. Kneading - felting. Fig. 12. Kneading - rolling. Fig. 13. Continuous stable vibration. Fig. 14. Continuous labile vibration. Fig. 15. Intermittent vibration (hack).


When grinding (Fig. 6 and 7) massaging hand, unlike strokes, non-slip, and depending on the degree of pressure shifts, stretches, mills different layers of tissue. Causing increased redness, rubbing improves tissue nutrition contributes to more intense absorption crushed abnormal deposits in different layers of tissue. Rubbing also stimulates the contractile function of the muscles, improving their tone. A vigorous rubbing along the nerve trunks causes a decrease in excitability. Independently rubbing does not apply, and, as a rule, combined with the stroking. From secondary methods used sawing performed thumbs of both hands or ulnar edge of one or both hands, moving simultaneously in opposite directions (in the places of massive muscles, big fat deposits, Scarring cicatrices); stroking - end large or several fingers (scars); the cross - beam edge vertical brushes (when massaging the abdomen); planing - position massaging fingers is the same as when sawing, rate of movement fast (with scars, spinach).
Petrissage (Fig. 8-12) consists in grasping the lifting (procrastination) and push-or capture, compression and stretching of tissues. Kneading can be continuous and intermittent, is made both upstream and downstream directions. Massage movements should be slow, smooth, rhythmic, without jerks, does not infringe tissues. Kneading is combined with the stroking. Providing more energetic impact than rubbing, kneading significantly improves muscle tone, strengthens the blood tissue, tissue metabolism, more vigorously supports the evacuation of the lymph vessels, resorption abnormal deposits in tissues. Auxiliary kneading techniques: wipeabate kneading - squeezing (when massaging the muscles, which can fully capture, for example quadriceps); felting (Fig.11)- clenching and grinding tissues massaged between the palms of the hands, moving in opposite directions (when the pain of muscles, big fat deposits); formation (Fig. 12) (abdominal obesity); move (when massaging flat, short of muscles); twitching-pinching and stretching (when deep ingrown scars); compression (with a decrease in elasticity); pressed (when massaging the face muscles, in the places of nerve endings on the surface).
Vibration (Fig. 13-15) is to transfer massaged body parts rhythmic vibration. Can be continuous and intermittent, stable (produced in one place) or unstable (for). Having expressed reflex action, vibration, depending on the amplitude and frequency of massage movements, methods of application can, to varying degrees to alter the excitability of nervous-muscular tissue, activating the regenerative processes, trophic of tissues, change the functional state of the heart muscle, its rhythm, height, blood pressure, to have analgesic and even anesthetic action. Auxiliary vibration techniques can be divided into two groups: the first is to present options continuous vibration - shake, shake, nudging (hand massage and massaged part of the body are like one); the other options intermittent vibration - puncturing, Pat, hack (Fig. 15), effleurage, quilting (massaging hand contact massaged surface, every time away from it).
Main and auxiliary massage techniques can run the entire surface of the palm or its supporting part, the scope of tenure and hipotekara (large parts - back, stomach), Palmar surface of one or more fingers (on small plots in the area of the periarticular tissue, mucous bags for muscle hardening, in places of nerve on the surface), bone ribs distal ends of the main phalanges, folded into a fist, elbow edge of the wrist, elbow end of the forearm (in the location of the powerful muscular layers of the muscles, covered by thick fascia, and so on). Massage can one or both hands, and the hands can participate together separately (both arms move in parallel), or together in series (one hand follows the other), or put one hand on the other. Last massage technique is called "burdened brush" and is used for the more energetic effects on tissues. Massage movements can be produced in different directions: a longitudinal or transverse (extremities)of the zigzag or spiral (large parts - back, abdomen; partial damage of skin abrasion), circular (in the joints). Participation right and left hands when massaging to prevent rapid fatigue must be balanced. Saving forces massage contributes to change of groups working muscles and working postures.