Cobalt (Cobaltum, Co) is a chemical element of group VIII of the periodic system of D. I. Mendeleev. Serial number 27, atomic weight 58,9332. The metal white. In connection bivalent and trivalent. Contained in sea water, mineral sources, soil, part of plants, animals and man. Cobalt received by the organism, is metabolized partially excreted with faeces, urine and milk during lactation). In the body it is associated with proteins, amino acids, is part of vitamin B12. Cobalt activates enzymes, increases glycolytic activity of blood, increases basal metabolism, the synthesis of muscle proteins assimilation of nitrogen stimulates hematopoiesis. The lack of cobalt develops Hypo - or vitamin B12.
In medicine in the various forms of anemia with the purpose of stimulation of erythropoiesis used drugs cobalt: Hamid (see); verboven (see Iron, drugs); cobalamin (Cobaltamin) connection cobalt amino acids; cobaltite (Cobaltin) connection of cobalt with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; retrofill (Erythrophyll) - the chlorophyll molecule which magnesium is replaced by cobalt; of montavit (Montavit) - cobalt together with iron.
The radioactive cobalt. Known radioactive isotopes of cobalt: So, So, So, With60 , etc. the First three are produced by irradiation of iron deuterons in the cyclotron (see Accelerators of charged particles). The half-life Co - 77 days So - 71 days and So-270 days. During the collapse of all three isotopes emits positrons and gamma rays.
Used Cose and So to study the absorption of cobalt plants, cobalt content in the soil, metabolism of vitamin B12 in animals and humans.
Isotope With60 (the half-life of 5.2 years) receive in a nuclear reactor (see nuclear Reactors) by irradiation stable cobalt (Co) thermal neutrons. Disintegration Over60 emits a beta particle and two gamma; β-rays are absorbed aluminum filter thickness of 0,2 mm In practice is used only 7-radiation, characterized by a large penetrating power.
the gamma radiation From60 is used in industry for defects of metal products, rubber vulcanizing and for sterilization of foods, medicines.
In medicine From60 is used as sources of gamma-radiation radiation therapy (see Gamma-ray apparatuses) mainly patients with malignant tumors. Sources With60 have a different shape, size and activity (see Radioactivity).
With60 applied also in the form of preparations for intraoral introduction and needles for interstitial introduction.
Average annual allowable concentration From60 in water open water bodies and water sources - 3,510-8 Curie/l; in the air of working premises - 910-12 Curie/L.
Cm. also Radioactive drugs.
Cobalt as industrial poison.
Cobalt is used to produce various alloys; compounds of cobalt can be used as catalysts, raw materials for making paints and enamels. Most are toxic soluble compounds of cobalt. Maximum permissible concentration of cobalt and cobalt oxide in the air is 0.5 mg/m3. Hit fine dust, vapours, mists of cobalt in the lungs causes inflammation of the lung tissue and mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract (pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, tracheitis, pulmonary fibrosis). Sometimes bronchitis accompanied asthmatic attacks. Describes the impact of compounds of cobalt in the blood (anaemia, lakopenia). One of the early symptoms of dust cobalt is impaired sense of smell.
Compounds of cobalt pulverized can cause skin lesions in acute dermatitis. In acute dermatitis apply cool gadgets Borovskoy liquid, resorcinoland tannin.
In order to prevent poisoning compounds of cobalt should be sealed and mechanization of production processes and replacement of dry processes of grinding in a wet. You must use the means of individual protection (respirators, gloves, etc.). All contact with the compounds of cobalt, must undergo a medical examination 1 time in 12 months.