Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis is a very serious disease. It is characterized by more or less extensive ulceration of the mucous rectum and colon, hyperplastic growths, contraction and shortening of the colon. Ulceration is often covered with festering bloom and can penetrate up muscle and even to the serosal layer.
Clinically ulcerative colitis is manifested rich bloody-mucous or blood-tinged-purulent discharge from the rectum, frequent stools (from 4-5 to 20 times a day), depletion and loss of strength. In severe cases the disease is accompanied by deep intoxication and anemia. It is also possible serious complications such as perforation of the intestinal ulcers and profuse bleeding.
Although the study of ulcerative colitis is dedicated to a large number of studies, so far, neither in our country nor abroad there is no consensus regarding the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease and not recovered sufficiently effective methods of treatment that we would completely satisfied. None of the existing assumptions unable to satisfactorily explain the cause of all peculiarities of the course of ulcerative colitis.
Currently not, repeat, to identify any major factor in the origin of ulcerative colitis. Undoubtedly, however, that in the etiology and pathogenesis of this condition the important role played by many factors - infectious, immunologic, mental and others. It is impossible not to take into account the influence of the Central nervous system on the disease. Which of these factors are the cause, and which complicates hard to say. Therefore correct to speak about polietiologic nature of this disease, seeing it as not so much a set of hypotheses about the causes of disease as a valid part of a number of mechanisms in the development of the disease.
Success in the treatment of ulcerative colitis can be achieved only in the case when therapy is complex, taking into account the diverse manifestations of the disease and the action of all the mechanisms involved in its development.
The clinical course there are three forms of the disease: acute ulcerative colitis, chronic and chronic recurrent colitis.
Acute ulcerative colitis is characterized by a rapid development of inflammatory and ulcerous process from the very beginning of the disease. This form is the most severe, but is relatively rare. In acute ulcerative colitis process is developing so rapidly, that it covers the entire large intestine. In patients almost always occurs total colitis. Due to the massive destruction of the bowel and rapid development of the process of the disease since the first day becoming threatening. So with acute ulcerative colitis should take resolute measures, up to the surgery.
Chronic continuous ulcerative colitis occurs almost without remission. The process can be difficult, and relatively balanced character. The severity of disease is associated with the degree of dissemination of the pathological process.
The danger of the specified form is continuous devastating disease. The duration of its very relative. Total chronic ulcerative colitis may not last long. It and is clear. Continuous disease depletes the patient, is a sharp decline forces. In such critical cases, due to the danger of death is required surgical intervention.
If offset, low-intensity colitis disease often last many years. When this form is sometimes possible to achieve improvement with the help of conservative treatment.
Recurrent ulcerative colitis is a disease, when his attacks followed by periods of remission. Some particularly strong relapses occur as an acute colitis.
It should be emphasized that non-specific ulcerative colitis this form characteristic feature: the attacks may stop spontaneously and in the period of remission between the disease is unseen.
If severe recurrent forms attacks run so violently that they can be compared with acute disease, with indolent forms they are less pronounced. The severity of the attacks and in these cases relates to the extent of spread of the disease, the vastness of the gut is damaged. With heavy attacks are very often observed total colitis, and with a weak left - sided colitis and proktoshigmoidit.
The choice of treatment depends on the intensity of the attack. In severe cases require surgical intervention. At a weak attacks therapeutic effect is often achieved by using conservative methods.
In heavy over all forms of ulcerative colitis are accompanied by deep intoxication, sharp violation of water-salt and nitrogen balance, changes in the blood picture (in our practice, the content of hemoglobin falls to 4-6 g%, the number of leukocytes was increased to 30 000 mm3, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate increased to 60 mm per hour), and the weakening of all vital functions of the patient. It is quite clear that these forms and caused high mortality in nonspecific ulcerative colitis.
Even in the milder forms of ulcerative colitis is extremely resistant disease. The difficulty of treatment is aggravated, as we have already said, a vast variety of forms of the disease. That is why when choosing the appropriate method of treatment is the individual approach to each patient.
If diagnosed great help to have the data rectoromanoscopy, colonoscopies and x-ray examinations.

  • Ulcerative colitis form