Table salt

Table salt (sodium chloride, the formula NaCl) is an irreplaceable food and flavouring substance, the lack of which in food for a long time leads to functional and organic disorders.
Salt maintains a constant osmotic pressure of blood plasma and tissue fluids, it is essential to maintain acid-base (acid-base equilibrium in the body, ensures its ions CL, necessary for the formation of hydrochloric acid in the process of gastric secretion. Daily demand for table salt: adult - 10-15 g, young children - about 5 g; in hot climates, the need for salt rises to 25-30, In the composition of foods normal diet contains 3-5 g of sodium chloride.
Salt promotes improvement of blood pressure, as occurs water retention in the body. So when hypertension, obesity, edema is necessary to reduce the daily intake of salt.
Table salt is widely used as a preservative agent (salting of vegetables, Ambassador of meat). On the method of processing there are evaporated salt, ground, and not iodized. Iodized salt use in the regions with propagation of endemic goiter prevention of this disease. For preparation of iodized salt salt mixed with potassium iodide (25 g per 1 t salt). To increase stability of iodine potassium iodide to mix with salt treated with sodium thiosulfate (0,01 % by weight of potassium iodide). This enables you to keep in salt iodine without significant losses in the last 6 months. After this period of iodized salt must be realized as usual.
The quality of food salt is determined by the number it contains sodium chloride, as well as organoleptic and physical-chemical indicators (in particular, contained admixtures of chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium, potassium chloride and others). Manufactured in the sale of salt of good quality should contain not less than 99,2 - 99,5% NaCl. Not allowed impurity toxic compounds of metals, nitrites and nitrates. Salt should not have odor (excluding iodized table salt), 5% solution of sodium chloride should be purely salty taste. Sampling and study technique salt specified in GOST 153-57.
Food salt is stored in closed and dry storehouses, iodized salt should be protected from light. Air humidity at the warehouses of iodized salt should not exceed 75%.
Cm. also Flavouring substances, Mineral substances (in power).

Table salt (food) - technically pure sodium chloride (formula NaCl), derived from natural deposits. Essential nutrient, the lack of which in food leads to functional and organic disorders.
Components of salt ions Na+ and Cl - belong to the group of the major chemical components of living matter.
Daily needs adult in P.F. ranges from 8-10 to 10-15 g; for younger children - within 5 g; in hot climates need P.F. rises to 25-30, When determining the needs taken into account salt, part of the food products (in a normal diet 3-5 g P.F.). Taking into account P.F. added to the finished food (5-7 g), the total number of NaCl will be 8-12 grams per day.
P. S. in the human body maintains a constant osmotic pressure of blood plasma and tissue fluids; it is essential to maintain acid-base balance (see) of the organism, provides the body with Cl-ions necessary for the formation of gastric juice (this will consume more than 20% of consumed P.F.), and activates amylase (see).
The lack of P.F. in food, for example in long-term use of so-called strict sparing (usually gipohloremia), as well as dairy rations, the body may have a deficit of sodium chloride. Lack of food protein, vitamins, excess carbohydrates contribute to the development of this condition. More severe deficiency occurs when profuse diarrhea, uncontrollable vomiting, extensive burns and other Deficit of sodium chloride may be due to significant losses with sweat.
P.F. is widely used as a preserving agent.
On the method of processing of table salt is divided into common ground, and not iodized. The latter is used in the regions with propagation of endemic goiter for the prevention of this disease. For preparation of iodized salt P.F. mixed with potassium iodide (25 g per 1 t salt). The moisture content in iodized salt should be no more than 3.5%; requirements to the rest of physico-chemical parameters are the same as to the sort of salt, from which it is prepared. For stabilization of iodine КJ before mixing with P.F. treated with sodium thiosulfate (0,01% by weight of potassium iodide). Under this condition КJ stored in salt up to 6 months. without significant losses. After this period iodized salt must be realized as usual.
The quality of food P.F. is determined by the number it contains sodium chloride, as well as organoleptic and physical-chemical properties of the product, in particular contained impurities (chlorides and sulphates of CA and Mg, chloride and others). The chemical composition of food P.F. depending on the grade (extra, the highest, I and II) must meet the following requirements (in % to dry salt): Naci - not less than 99,2-96,5, insoluble substances - not more than 0.05 - 0,9, moisture - no more than 0,5 to sort of extra and 0.8 for rock salt, regardless of the sort; for other grades 4-6. Sa extra grade should not be, in the other varieties - 0,6-0,8; Mg - not more than 0,03-0,25; Fe2O3 in sort of extra - no more than 0,005; sodium sulphide - not more than 0.2 for sort of extra, for area - 0,5. Not allowed impurity toxic metal compounds, as well nitrites and nitrates. Salt must be odourless, 5% solution it must be purely salty taste.
In salt found microorganisms: You. subtilis You. Mesentericus, Serratia salinaria.
Sampling and study technique food P.F. specified in GOST 153-57 ("Salt"). In the analysis determined the taste, the smell, the reaction to the litmus paper, moisture, number of insoluble substances CA++, Mg++, SO4--, K+, Cl-, iodized salt - J-.
Table salt is stored in closed dry warehouses; iodized P.F. should be protected from light. The humidity in the storage of iodized salt is allowed to 75%.