Compensatory devices

Compensatory adaptations - the kind of body reaction to the damage, in which the organs and systems that are not directly affected by the actions damaging agent, take on the function of the destroyed structures by substitution of an overactive or qualitatively changed functions. Compensatory adaptations are, therefore, one of adaptive mechanisms of the damaged body and along with immunity, inflammation, phagocytosis play a large role in the recovery process.
When you delete or defeat of one of paired organs, the corresponding function is compensated by hyperthyroidism and so-called auxiliary hypertrophy (see) the rest of the body. The following picture can be observed when turning off the kidney, lung, adrenal gland, etc.
Atrophy of one lobe of the liver is compensatory hypertrophy other proportion to the size of a normal liver. When aortic stenosis, when the passage of blood from the left ventricle into the bloodstream difficult to develop compensatory hypertrophy of the myocardium, which for many years supported the normal circulation.
If the damage to the nervous system of compensatory processes occur in two ways: on the one hand, thanks to mnogolineynom links between different parts of the nervous system function broken road connections between nerve centers perform other nerve fibers (mechanical immunity" by I. P. Pavlov); on the other - under the influence unusual for data neuronal signals coming from the periphery, there is a kind of "retraining" these neurons, resulting in changing the pace and rhythm of their work and changes the nature of the impulses that come to the effector organs (bodies to the performers). Thanks to this ability of neurons, nerve centers in the process of compensatory adaptations can take new, unfamiliar to them earlier functions, replacing destroyed nerve education. For example, if the damage nerves to the muscles-extensor, the latter can innerwireless centers muscle-flexing muscles and so on, To the greatest degree the property of plasticity inherent in the cerebral cortex, which plays a crucial role in compensatory devices with significant damage of the nervous system.
If the damage internal organs compensatory adaptations are that with the defeat of any authority arise compensatory changes in the activity of many organs and systems, because every function of the body is provided by numerous processes. At destruction of the heart valves and the emergence of Vice changes occur not only in the myocardium, but also in other bodies involved in ensuring normal blood circulation. Change the tone of vessels, the intensity of the external and tissue respiration, etc., When you turn off one kidney is not only improves the function of the other, but also increases the excretion of water through the gastrointestinal tract. Unlike physiological hyperthyroidism body that occur during high load on it in the temporary voltage, compensatory school is sustained, and that caused by irreversibility occurred in the body of violations.
In the process of compensatory hyperthyroidism body goes through three main stages. First - emergency stage is characterized by the fact that the body was forced to increase their function, have not exaggerated, therefore the activity of each of the cell structure of its growing. This leads to a mobilization of the functional reserves of the body, such as switching off the kidney or lung backup nephrons or alveoli in the surviving entity. This increased activities on the one hand, can cause destructive changes, on the other activates the energy formation and synthesis of protein and nucleic acids, resulting in increased weight of the body (hypertrophy) up until the intensity of the functioning of each cell structure becomes equal or close to that which was to defeat. From this time begins the second, the longest stage of relatively resistant hyperactive. This stage is characterized by normal levels of energy production and protein synthesis, termination of growth of the authority and the restoration of its functional potential, that is, the changed body (heart, lung, kidney, and so on) performs its function. In the clinic they say in such cases of compensated pathological process. However, with the continuing burden finally, there comes a condition in which even exaggerated body can not cope with it.
The synthesis of protein and energy formation are being gradually reduced, along with biochemical disorders appear and violations of morphological (atrophy, dilation, replacement of functioning cells of connective tissue). This third stage leading to decompensation of the process, when clinically develop symptoms of deficiency of the body (cardiovascular, pulmonary insufficiency), after which there may come a full cessation of activities and the death of the body, and can result in the body.
Regulation compensatory devices is nervous and endocrine systems through numerous metabolic reactions. So when therapy damage should take into account the impact of these regulatory processes and the processes of metabolism.