Compression asphyxia

Asphyxia due to limitations of respiratory movements of the chest and diaphragm may be acute when it collapses, falling massive objects on the body or subacute when compression partially reduces respiratory movements.
Restriction of breathing movements can only refer to the chest or abdomen, or both.
While compression of the chest and abdomen death occurs relatively quickly. Slowly hypoxia non-simultaneous compression of the chest and abdomen and long runs at lateral compression of the body.
The mechanism of death in case of compression of the chest and abdomen has some peculiarities. When compressing the abdomen sharply reduced mobility diaphragm; it is bogatoi to the lungs and the heart that largely prepyatstvuet participation aperture in respiratory movements. Such position of the aperture not only causes difficulty in breathing, and changes the normal rhythm of cardiac activity, accompanied by violation of hemodynamics and leads to a rapid weakening of the heart activity associated with the development of the fetal heart. In case of compression of the chest is broken hemodynamics in the cerebral vessels. Simultaneous compression of the chest and stomach leads to the development of a number of pathological phenomena conducive to the growth of hypoxia, which ultimately causes asphyxia as a direct cause of death.
General morphological changes in the internal organs asphyxia, caused by compression of the chest and abdomen are the same as for other types of mechanical asphyxia. Diagnosing it, as a rule, does not cause difficulties. Great importance is the knowledge of an expert in the circumstances of the accident.
At external examination of the corpse on clothing and skin can be detected sand, gravel and other, with compression heavy objects on the skin of a corpse are distinct prints of clothing and that caused compression. Noteworthy expressed cyanosis of the skin of face, neck and the upper part of chest with multiple blue-masked point hemorrhages - "athematically mask". Her education promotes abrupt increase of jugular venous pressure and ring veins. Sometimes there is bleeding from the nose and ears. On the skin of a corpse, you can see multiple or single sadnenia that arise when the compression of the body.
When an internal study of the corpse there has been a sharp plethora of internal organs.
The rapid compression of the chest and abdomen accompanied by a rupture of the alveoli and the release of air under the visceral pleura. Formed the so-called bullous emphysema (with the slow compression of air manages to supplant the natural way - through the bronchi and trachea).
You can often see specific to compression of the chest and abdomen phenomenon known as "Carmine pulmonary edema". In case of compression of the body of the air in the small amount still enters the respiratory tract due to the weak breathing and blood in the lungs is compared to other internal organs saturated with oxygen, which results in their red color. This effect was named "Carmine pulmonary edema". Under the visceral pleura of the lungs, under the epicardium hearts find abundant point and large bright red bleeding. To the same effect bleeding, but with a darker shade are observed on the surface of the diaphragm, abdomen and other serous membranes.
Depending on the circumstances of the accident in this type of mechanical asphyxia the body can be caused significant damage, accompanied by bone fractures, breaking and crushing of internal organs with abundant loss of blood. This damage can themselves lead to death.
Examination of the corpse at the scene at death from compression of asphyxia is conducted according to General rules, however, given the characteristics associated with compression of the body with heavy objects soil. Note the character of compressing objects, prints clothing and other items on the skin; color the skin, exophthalmos , and bleeding in tunica albuginea eyes, face, upper trunk, etc. it is often possible to see the contamination of clothing, the skin of a corpse, the presence of foreign objects on the clothes, and the face, mouth, and nose, and various localization and property damage, which are subject to a detailed description.

1. What is meant by the term "hanging"?
2. What is the Genesis of death for the hanging?
3. Name morphological signs of mechanical asphyxia, which is the basis for the diagnosis of "hanging".
4. What features strangulation furrows for the hanging?
5. What is the Genesis of death when davlenii loop?
6. Name morphological signs of mechanical asphyxia, which is the basis for the diagnosis of udivlenie loop".
7. What is the basis for differential diagnosis of "hanging" and "udivlenie loop"?
8. What is the Genesis of death when davlenii hands?
9. List morphological features, based on which the diagnosis of udivlenie hands.
10. What are the morphological differences between forced flowed and slow compression of the chest and abdomen?