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Medico-genetic counseling in the prevention of mental diseases

During the examination and treatment of the mentally ill the doctor has to make contact with his relatives, who often ask whether the disease is hereditary and not will this effect in the offspring. Questions are also asked about what degree of risk inheritance of mental illness, how to reduce it, whether a child who has in the genus mental disorders, show psychiatrist. All these questions are related to the field of genetic counseling.
The purpose of medico-genetic counseling - determination is at risk of hereditary deterministic mental illness in the future or already existing descendants of the patient or any of his relatives. In psycho terms, this is important, because depending on the result of the consultation addressed the issues of marriage, childbearing, and in perspective the goal is the implementation in practice of health wide follow-up of the population with an increased risk of mental illness. The calculation of the risk of illness is determined by the degree of its hereditary condition, and also the type of inheritance and probabilistic. For each type of inheritance have their ratio between the number of patients and healthy members of the family. The risk of developing the disease is large is likely to arise from 1:1 to 1:10, relatively low - probability from 1:10 to 1:20 and small - with a ratio of 1:20 or less.
To determine the degree of risk it is necessary to conduct a thorough examination, which includes a number of stages.
1-St stage - the diagnosis of the proband. The proband - face, which is the main object of the study (in this case, the mentally ill).
2-nd stage - the study of the mental state of relatives and compiling the genealogy of the patient. A thorough family history of probands, special attention is paid to the case of manifest and latent mental pathology. The latter implies the possibility of weirdness, behavioral disturbances, disharmonies of character in blood relatives of the patient. For obtaining more reliable data are drawn information from medical records, surveys are carried out not only the patient, but also his relatives; this is evaluated and the state in consultation relatives.
Compiled graphical layout family genealogy; data on both parental lines.
3rd stage - definition of a degree of risk of development of mental illness.
4-th stage for consultation, advice and assistance in the selection decision. For this purpose it is necessary to find out the purpose of obtaining consulting information and their setup, status, and personal characteristics. A careful observance of principles of deontology and care for the prevention of iatrogenic. One should explain the coincidence of the distribution of genetic factors, the incorrectness of the representation of fatality of heredity and disease, others say about the existence of effective methods of its treatment. The task of the doctor is to help consulted properly assess the provided information, to remove guilt from relatives for possessing inherited predilection and its transfer. Great therapeutic value is paying attention consulted on the existence of differences between the genetic transmission of hereditary disposition and the risk of the manifestations of this predilection.
5-th stage of the further supervision over the patient and his family, checking the correctness of the conclusion.