Contraceptives

Contraceptive (contraceptive) - drugs used to prevent pregnancy.
Contraceptives used by man: men's rubber condom (condom), and the method interrupted sexual intercourse (coitus interruptus); the latter cannot be recommended because of their unnatural and antipathological.
The group of contraceptives used by the woman, considerably more varied and more numerous, they may be physiological, chemical, mechanical and hormonal.
Physiological method of pregnancy prevention is based on the calculation of time, the probability of conception in connection with ovulation (see the Menstrual cycle) and terms of the viability of the egg and sperm. When the 30-day menstrual cycle is the period from the 12th till the 19th day, counting from the first day of last menstruation; in a 28-day cycle - from the 10th to the 17th day; 26-day - from the 8th to the 15th day, and so on (these periods the probability of conception is the greatest).

Contraception: 1 - cap of the KYRGYZ Republic; 2 - cap Kafka;
3 - "spring"; 4 "umbrella"; 5 - paste in a tube (top syringe); 6 - sponge.



Mechanical tools made from rubber, metals and various synthetic materials. The greatest distribution have received all kinds of caps (vaginal and cervical). Industry produces rubber vaginal CR caps, which have the shape of a dome made of thin rubber with black bezel in the form of a roller (Fig., 1). This cap is harmless and easy to use. The doctor or midwife antenatal clinic selects the cap, corresponding to the capacity of the vagina, and teaches the woman of his application. You should give it in locaabrace folded, and bringing to the posterior vaginal fornix, stretch so that it covered a cervix. To wear the cap must in the supine position, and to remove the cap should a woman standing position with your knees bent. Razvivayut cap in 2-3 days after menstruation and in 3-4 months. after delivery. The term of wearing the cap into the vagina should be limited to 5-7 days. 5-6 days prior to menstruation cap is removed and carefully wash out, and the woman should make a douche vagina. Keep the cap recommended in a cool place in a vessel with boric acid solution. In addition to the cap CU, there are other rubber contraceptives: caps "Ramses", Mensinga, Mispa, ball Bakaleinikov. However, the mentioned contraception is not widely spread and almost never applied. A very common contraceptive methods is the cervical cap Kafka, made of metal or plastic (see figure, 2). The cap has a form thimbles of various sizes (from 2 to 15 rooms). Select the largest of the cervix and put the cap woman doctor or midwife. Contra-indications for use cervical cap Kafka are: inflammatory diseases, hypoplasia, deformation and the omission of the cervix, prolapse of the vaginal walls. Application technique: vagina open mirrors and boiled cap with a long tweezers put on the cervix. The term wear cap Kafka to 5 days.
Tested and began to apply mechanical intrauterine devices, prepared from synthetic plastic materials, - "springs" and "umbrellas" (Fig., 3 and 4). Their use can be recommended to women in the absence of any organic and functional diseases of sexual sphere. The introduction of these funds in the uterus necessarily performed by a gynecologist through a special tube-conductor. A compulsory condition is the presence of I - II degree of purity of the vagina and normal blood picture. Intrauterine devices in strict compliance with the indications, contra-indications and conditions for their use, and give a good contraceptive effect and do not violate the sexual life of the spouses. Spring if necessary, can be easily removed from the uterus.

Contraceptives are used to prevent pregnancy.
Contraception should meet the following criteria: 1) be absolutely harmless to the health of the spouses (partners); 2) have the maximum efficiency; 3) be cost-effective, affordable and easy to use; 4) not negatively affect sexual feeling partners, not cause negative emotions. There are physiological, biological, chemical, mechanical and surgical methods of birth control.
Physiological method based on the period of ovulation and life expectancy Mature egg. Has the ability to fertilize up to 24 hours. Ovulation with the most frequent 28-day menstrual cycle, M. S. Malinovsky, takes place on 14-15 th day from the start of the last menstrual period, and on the Ogino and Knaus - for 12-14-16 days prior to the upcoming period. To determine the expected date of ovulation use a number of functional tests: measurement of basal (rectal) temperature, the phenomenon of the pupil (see the Menstrual cycle), the test fern PAP smears and other Developed special tables that take into account the duration of the cycle, the period prior to ovulation, physiological sterility from the beginning of menstruation, the estimated period of ovulation and physiological sterility before the next menstruation. However, ovulation can occur before and after the specified deadlines. In addition to spontaneous ovulation in some cases, possible and provoked ovulation. Sperm retain fertilizing ability few days. The optimal time of fertilization Mature egg - ovulation. The results of the use of physiological good way. How healthy women. Its application requires the systematic conduct of the menstrual calendar.
Biological methods (spermatogonial, hormonal and non-hormonal regulation of process of fertilization) are aimed at the suppression of the PSBs and spermatogenesis, ovulation, change in the functional status endometrium and physico-chemical properties of cervical mucus, opposition normal implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus and its development, difficulty promotion of sperm through the cervix. Temporary spermatogonial caused parenteral introduction of sperm, gives mixed results; some authors consider it unsafe. Hormonal methods - see below. Non-hormonal methods include the use of some chemical compounds - antagonists some of the vitamins necessary for fertilization and implantation of the egg or violate metabolism (e.g., folic acid), but also lower gonadotropic activity of the pituitary gland or with antidiureticeski properties. Also use antihistamines and blocking the development of decidual tissue substances. The oral use of biological contraceptives ineffective and unsafe.


Mechanical tools - male and female condoms made from thin high quality rubber and synthetic materials.
Male condom (condom) easy to use, safe, effective, protects partners from venereal diseases. Storage period 1 to 2 years. Disadvantages: decrease in a sexual sense, excluding the positive impact of sperm in the woman's body, the possibility of irritation in the genital tract, and the gap Kondoma. In the latter case, you should immediately proprietati vagina disinfectant.
Vaginal (female) condoms share the vagina to the front part, which is poured out ejaculate, and back, which is the cervix. The most convenient and widespread cap CU.
Selected by the doctor consultations according to the breadth of the vagina from # 60 to № 85 (5 rooms). The woman easily trained to use them. Enter the vagina (Fig., 1-3) prior to sexual act and removed not later than through 8-10 hours. Before the introduction disinfected, and after removal washed and dried. Used for a long time. Sometimes falls from the vagina; reduces sexual feeling.
From the cervical cap is most often used cap Kafka. Produce caps of different size of aluminum, synthetic materials and vulcanized rubber. Selects them and puts doctor consultation (Fig., 4-6). The most common from # 6 to # 11, parous - from # 9 to # 11. Different diameter and depth.
Conditions of use of the cap Kafka: I-II degree of purity of the vagina, a normal size and shape of the cervix, not pathological changes and damage. Contraindications: inflammation of the uterus and appendages, prolapse of the vaginal walls. Wear no earlier than in 2-3 days after menstruation and in 3-4 months. after birth, leaving not more than 7 days. Necessarily take 2-3 days before menstruation. Cap Mispa rarely used, mainly № 40. 45, 50, 55 and 60.
The use of the cervical caps are somewhat limited in connection with the necessity of compliance with certain conditions, the presence of contraindications, the need for frequent recourse to the doctor, and also due to some decrease in a sexual sense.
Vnutriserdechne pessaries currently not applied, so as to cause the disorder menstruation, pain and poor health among women. Also do not use a pessary of Mensinga, condom "Graziella", a rubber ball, P. Bakaleinikov and other mechanical contraceptive. The combination of caps Kafka and CR with chemicals increases their efficiency. Tampons and sponge, moistened with medicinal substances, are a combination of mechanical and chemical methods of preventing pregnancy.

the technique of putting on contraceptive cap
The technique of putting on birth control cap: 1 - rubber cap of the KYRGYZ Republic; 2 and 3 - methods of introducing it into the vagina; 4 - 6 - methods of putting the cap Kafka on the cervix.

Surgical methods - ligation or partial excision of the fallopian tubes are used as supporting operations in kesarevom section (for medical reasons).
To harmful methods include men bandaging VAS flow, for women - injection and lubrication of the uterus iodine tincture, rentgenology, prolonged breast-feeding.
In the promotion of contraceptives main role belongs to the female doctors consultation, who spend a broad awareness of the dangers of abortion, acquaint women with effective contraception, trained how to use them and maintain the effectiveness of individual contraceptives. When a large consultation there are special rooms for contraception.