Cough is a complex reflex act of importance in the complex of protective and cleansing reactions of respiratory organs. Cough reflex occurs as a result of irritation of sensitive nerve terminals (receptors) wandering and language-glotocnogo nerves in the mucosa of the pharynx, larynx, bronchi, pleura and other Irritation of receptors arrive in the medulla to "kashlevogo centre. Hence pulses through the motor nerves go to the respiratory muscles, the diaphragm and the muscles of the larynx. Cough push consists of a sudden and sharp exhalation, which begins at the closed voice cracks. With the power of revealing the glottis, the air breaks out and carries out the phlegm, mucus, and other foreign mass of the respiratory tract.
The cough reflex is under the control of the Central nervous system. The occurrence of cough is also possible with the irritation of the receptors located outside the respiratory tract (for example, when immersing foot in cold water, mechanical irritation of the ear). Cough, not due to changes in respiratory organs, is rare. As a rule, cough, especially long, is a sign of the pathological process in the bronchus, larynx, rarely in the pleura.
The nature of the cough is permanent, periodic, paroxysmal. Constant cough observed in chronic diseases of the larynx, trachea or bronchus, prolonged stagnation of blood in the lungs, heart disease. Intermittent cough happens in patients with emphysema, pneumonia, bronhoektatical disease in smokers. Coughing spells occur when pertussis. A single attack of severe coughing occurs when inhaled foreign body; he continues to remove a foreign body from the respiratory tract.
Cough, not accompanied by phlegm, called dry. This cough is observed in the initial stages of acute bronchitis and pleurisy, pulmonary tuberculosis or stagnation in the lungs.
Cough with sputum comes up after dry cough with bronchitis, pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis and other
If coughing helps to remove from the bronchi detachable, creates effective drainage of the bronchi, it cannot be suppressed. In these cases, appoint expectorants (e.g. extract termopsisa 1 tablet 3 times a day).
Dry cough, apart from the discomfort of the patient, causes serious disruption in the organs of respiration and circulation (increased pressure in the chest cavity, increasing the workload of the right ventricle of the heart and so on). To treat dry cough used cold preparations (codeine 0,015 - 0,03 g no more than 3 times a day, dionin 0,015-0,03 g but not more than 3 times a day), mustard pack (see Mustard), alcohol compresses on her chest (folded 4 times cheesecloth moistened 30-40% solution of ethyl alcohol).