Cranial nerves

  • I - III couples
  • IV - VI couples
  • VII - IX couples
  • X pair, the vagus nerve (n. vagus), has a very wide distribution and branched out mainly in the internal organs. Its trunk originates 10 - 15 roots in the area oblong brain, behind IX pair. The total trunk X pair out of the skull through the jugular hole along with the IX and XI pairs of cranial nerves. Sensory fibers of the vagus nerve start from the top and bottom nodes lying near the jugular holes. On leaving the skull X pair goes down, is in the neck and into the breast and abdomen. The left vagus nerve enters the chest cavity between the left carotid and subclavian arteries and, falling on the front surface of the esophagus, forks on the front surface of the stomach. Right vagus nerve, entering into the chest cavity, lies between the right subclavian artery and vein. It marks the beginning of a return nerve (n. laryngeus recurrens). Right vagus nerve is part of the celiac plexus. Sensitive fiber X pair nerviruet the mucous membrane of the pharynx, larynx, tongue, and with V and IX pairs of cranial nerves Dura. They end in the kernel single beam in the other engines in the rear of the Department of diamond-shaped holes. Fiber, Innervate the internal organs of thoracic and abdominal cavities, originate in the dorsal nucleus X pair of cranial nerves. Motor fibers X pair of cranial nerves depart from dual cores tires. Motor nucleus of the vagus nerve associated with the bark of a large brain via the fiber coming in a pyramid beam. Parasympathetic fibers, which are in the composition of the vagus nerve, also nerviruet the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
    With the defeat of the vagus nerve occurs paresis soft palate, larynx, pharynx and revealed signs of violations of the internal organs. When bilateral lesions observed disorder swallowing, getting food into the nose, nasal tone of speech, sometimes pain in the ear. If the damage is the vagus nerve at the level of a discharge from him return nerve comes aphonia, and difficulty breathing. Defeat warm branches causes tachycardia, their irritation - bradycardia. Sometimes there are heart attacks with a sharp pain. Unilaterally to defeat the vagus nerve - uvula omitted on the affected side, tongue deviates in a healthy way. Bilateral lesions of the vagus nerve always have a heavy forecast.
    XI pair, incremental nerve (n. accessorius), begins in two parts: the upper coming from the rear of the Department of dual cores, lying in the medulla, and the lower coming from the spinal nucleus in front horns upper segments of the spinal cord. The roots of the lower part is fixed in the skull through the great foramen and attached to the top of the nerve. The roots of the upper part of the face behind the olive, lying behind the backs of X pair. From a cavity of a skull extension nerve goes together with the X pair and is divided into two branches - the outer and the inner. Part fibers XI pair cranial nerves goes into the composition of the vagus nerve. The extension nerve innervates trapezoidal and sternocleidomastoid muscle. When his defeat and appears paralysis or paresis of these muscles. Meets the eye narrowing the gaps, these anomalies are the (retraction of the eyeball), miosis (constriction of the pupil) as a result of simultaneous involvement of the upper cervical node.
    XII pair, hypoglossal nerve (n. hypoglossus). The core of this nerve is located in the lower part diamond-shaped holes. Its many roots go between the pyramid, and the olive. Further, leaving a cavity of a skull, they pass through the channel hypoglossal nerve, down from the hyoid bone, then divided by the target branch, Innervate the muscles of the tongue.
    With the defeat of this nerve is found restriction of movements of the tongue forward and reject it in the affected side, muscle atrophy, fibrous twitching, pain in the root of the tongue.