Cranial nerves

  • I - III couples
  • VII - IX couples
  • X - XII couples
  • IV pair, block nerve (n. trochlearis), starts from the nuclei located in front of the aqueduct (selview), at the lower curves of cetverokatnice. Coming to the surface of the brain in the upper brain sails, makes a complete decussation fibers, encircles the foot of the brain and through superior ophthalmic slit included in the eye socket. Innervates the top oblique muscle of the eye. With the defeat of the block nerve noted diplopia - vision subjects when looking down, a little cross-eyed.

    Fig. 2. The topography of the trigeminal nerve:
    1 - mandibular nerve;
    2 - node of the trigeminal nerve.
    3 - ophthalmic nerve;
    4 - maxillary nerve.

    V pair, trigeminal nerve (n. trigeminus), released two roots to the surface of the brain between the bridge and the middle leg of the cerebellum. Great spine, sensitive, consists of axons site of the trigeminal nerve, located on the front surface of the pyramid of the temporal bone. Once in the brain, fiber, conducting sensitivity, over in the nucleus, which lies in the lid of the bridge (saralieva), and fiber conducting pain and temperature sensitivity,in the core of the spinal canal. From cells sensitive nuclei begins the second neuron going as part of a loop of the trigeminal nerve to the visual hill. Next sensitive way trigeminal nerve goes to bark back Central gyrus, and where it ends. Dendrites, cell site of the trigeminal nerve form three peripheral branches: the ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular nerves that Innervate the skin of the forehead and face, teeth, mucous membranes cavity of the nose and mouth (Fig. 2). Small spine, motor, is composed of fibers coming out of the engines behind the lid of the bridge. Leaving the bridge, it is located at the top and medially from sensitive way, is part of the mandibular nerve innervates all the chewing muscles.
    With the defeat of the sensitive parts of the trigeminal nerve arise brief bouts of very sharp pain (nerve pain) in relevant areas of the face, accompanied by reddening of the face, lacrimation (see Neuralgia). Damage to the motor part of the trigeminal nerve makes it impossible to offset the lower jaw in the healthy side because of the weakening of chewing and temporal muscles.
    VI pair, efferent nerve (n. abducens), consists of fibers extending from the cell nucleus of this nerve behind the lid of the bridge. Hence fiber efferent nerve pass through the thickness of the bridge and come to the base of the brain between the pyramid oblong brain and by a bridge. Then penetrate into the eye socket and nerviruet outer direct muscle eye. With the defeat of efferent nerve violated abstraction eyeball outwards, causing converging strabismus can be double vision.