Crohn's Disease

Crohn's disease is a nonspecific inflammatory relapsing condition related to the group intestinal granulomatosis. It can affect any Department of the gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus to the anus. Pathological changes capture the entire thickness of the intestinal wall, are, as a rule, segmental character and include the formation of necrotic areas, ulcers, granulomas with further narrowing of the lumen of the intestine and scarring.
In 1932 Crohn, Ginzburg and Oppenheimer described the disease that hits the final segment of the ileum, which autopsy picture is consistent with nonspecific granulomatous inflammation, differing from tuberculosis. The authors called the disease of the terminal (regional) ilicom. However, it soon became clear that a similar clinical-morphological changes can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract. Already in 1933, Harris said of the defeat of the ileum and the small intestine, and in 1934 Colp described a patient with granulomatous ileocolitis. In the literature has become more frequently used the term "regional enteritis". Bockus (1964) believes that the term is to be successful, because "enteron" means "digestive" the tube.
In the future, a number of researchers have observed granulomatous lesions of the colon without the involvement of the terminal ileum (Brooke, 1959; Morson and Lockhart-Muinmary, 1959). Lockhart-Mummary and Morson (1964) and others with the purpose of differentiation of ulcerative and granulomatous colitis suggested to introduce the concept of " Crohn's disease of large intestine". In the literature there are descriptions of Crohn's disease with a defeat of the stomach, duodenum and esophagus. Given the universal nature of pathological changes along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract, Johns and others (1968) are supporters of the term "Crohn's disease". But currently, the most frequent form with the defeat of the terminal ileum.
Crohn's disease belongs to rare diseases, but in recent years the trend is towards an increase in the frequency of this disease, which may to some extent due to the best of his recognition.
Mendeloff (1967) compared the prevalence of Crohn's disease in different countries. It turned out that in Baltimore (USA) this disease is 1.5 per 100 000 population, whereas in England and Norway respectively only 0.8 and 0.26. In other words, for 1 million people in one of the American cities, the average annual accounts for 10 new cases of Crohn's disease.
According to McCardy (1967), in the United States annually for every 2,500 patients with diseases of the digestive system have 3 cases of Crohn's disease.
In the literature there are some descriptions of Crohn's disease (E. P. Vanzan, 1954; M. P. Maples, 1959; E. I. Gutnik, 1967), but the total number of cases have not reached 100.
Crohn's disease can occur at any age, but usually it affects people aged from 20 to 40 years, and both sexes are affected with approximately the same frequency.