Cytotoxins

Cytotoxins - antibodies arising immunization cellular elements. When introduced into the body of one kind of animal cells of this or that body, taken from an animal of another species, induces the production of antibodies (see) directly to the cells of this body (organ specificity). On organ specificity cytotoxins based, the cytotoxic serum, which are obtained by immunization of animals and used in medicine to destroy harmful cells (such as a tumor).
The doctrine of cytotoxins was developed by I. I. Mechnikov and employees, which also shows a fundamental difference in the effect of large (destructive effect) and small (a stimulating effect) doses of cytotoxic serum. A small dose of cytotoxins used to stimulate functions of the system of connective tissue (antireticular cytotoxic serum), wound healing (granulocytopenia serum), restoration of blood after blood loss (pielietosana serum), etc., With the defeat of any authority and liberation in the body of cellular antigens (see) are formed autoritatii that destroy the remaining cells of the body and plays an important role in the mechanism of the further development of the pathological process (damage second, healthy kidney disease first, sympathetic one eye inflammation, autoimmune thyroid gland , and so on). Cytotoxins play a role in the mechanism of exclusion Homo - and especially watertransportation various tissues and organs.

Cytotoxins (from the Greek. kytos - cell and toxikon - poison) - antibodies arising immunization cellular elements. Sometimes as a synonym of cytotoxins use the term cytolysin, but the latter is applicable not only to cytotoxins, but also to any other substances, capable to dissolve cells. For the first time cytotoxins were obtained J. Board in the laboratory I. I. Mechnikov (hemolysins occurred during immunization Guinea pigs blood rabbit); similar by I. I. Mechnikov received spherocytosis, immobilizatsii sperm rabbit, and I. I. Mechnikov, A. M. Besedka showed that leikozitopenia and eritrocitarnyi serum selectively act accordingly by leukocytes and erythrocytes. In the future, various researchers have received cytotoxins against kidney (nephrolithotomy), liver (hepatocytomegaly), spleen, bone marrow, heart, blood vessels, lungs, stomach, intestines, nervous tissue, endocrine glands, skin, breast cancer, salivary glands, cartilage, the tissue of the eye, and others Received cytotoxins and against lymphatic tissue, plasmic order has been revealed, platelets, granulation tissue, etc. A. A. Bogomolets was proposed antireticular cytotoxic serum (KL ACC) with the purpose of stimulation system connective tissue diseases in the pathogenesis of which a significant role is played by the weakening of the protective, trophic or plastic functions of the connective tissue (for example, infectious diseases, malignant tumors, slow healing wounds, ulcers processes). To obtain KL ACC applied in the clinic, animals (horse, rabbit) subjected to immunization in human organs, contains the active components of the connective tissue - spleen and bone marrow.
The more specific antigen (see), the antibodies are specific and (see). However, in each body are not only specific cellular elements, but blood cells, nerve fibers, vascular lesions, etc., In difficult built bodies (e.g., kidney, pancreas) there are cells that perform different functions. Therefore, when preparing cytotoxic serum in the body immunized animal inevitably includes not only the items against which we need to get specific operating cytotoxin, but other tissue antigens. So the resulting serum does not have absolute specificity, because they contain antibodies (cytotoxins) against all components of tissue taken as antigen. However, the predominance in it the main elements of this body received serum contain cytotoxins against the latest in significantly higher titers than against other tissue components, which allows successfully to enjoy such sera in experiment and in clinic.
To determine the title of cytotoxins serum examine the reaction of binding complement, or other serological methods (Bodeanu, Ouchterlony, methods immunofluorescence and others). It is recommended to use only such sera, in which the title reaction with specific antigen considerably exceeds the title with non-specific antigens.
Cytotoxins have not only the organ, but the species specificity. If for immunization taken tissue of the animal is not of that kind, which then will be introduced received cytotoxin, it will be much weaker. Very active cytotoxic serum obtained by immunization is not the native antigen and after the introduction of individual animals cellular fractions of this tissue, especially microsome.
The question on the mechanism of action of cytotoxins is solved in the light of modern ideas about the interaction of antigen and antibody. With the introduction of animal cytotoxin in serum last decreases the title of complement fixed by the complex antigen (fabric of the respective body) - antibody (cytotoxin). Experiences with the introduction of animal fluorescent cytotoxic serum or globulin fraction (containing antibodies) these serums, isotope-labeled shown election localization entered cytotoxins in the cellular elements serving for immunization.
If cytotoxins entered in the high dose function of the respective body more or less disturbed and at some period of active elements of the authority fail. Some of them are dying because of the toxic effects of cytotoxins. Others remain viable, but functionally become paralyzed or their function is distorted. If the dose of cytotoxins not so great that the animal died, then gradually morphological and functional regeneration of damaged tissue. The function body is restored, and even after some time to exceed the initial level.


With the introduction of small doses of cytotoxins also selectively captured their antigen - homologous cloth. Because education in the cell complex antigen - antibody function of antigen, i.e., the corresponding cells of the body, of course, is violated. But unlike the process, which commit cloth of large doses of cytotoxins, the number of tissue cells, subjected to the action of antibodies, and the intensity of the cytotoxic effects are completely different. Some items are obviously the least stable, and die there, but intensely up the recovery process with a distinct functional activation of the authority in accordance with the General biological of the law on stimulation of the decay products of remaining viable tissue elements. This explanation of the mechanism of action of cytotoxins, in particular KL ACC, gave in his time A. A. Bogomolets, and currently it is generally accepted.
In recent years, much attention is paid to the problem of autotitrating. When the tissue damage caused by any reason, in the body are Exempt cell antigens, and is autoimmunization with the formation of antibodies acting on the same toxic cellular elements. For the first time on the formation of autotitrating pointed C. K. Lindeman, N. N. The Nefed'ev and P. A. Herzen in experiments with damage to the animal one kidney. As a result of production in the body renal autotitrating is tissue damage second (healthy) kidney. Similar data was obtained by S. S. Golovin, when the so-called sympathetic disease of the second people (autoritatii resulting from absorption of the corresponding antigen from the tissues damaged eye, damage healthy tissue of the eye). Recently published a series of studies on education of autotraitement if different, especially inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the thyroid gland. In blood of patients with lesions, especially rheumatic heart often defined automatikcertina. In hypertensive disease in many patients detected cytotoxins against the antigen secreted from the tissues of the aorta and great vessels. Similar phenomena are observed in patients suffering from diseases of the kidneys, lungs, skin.
In addition, when introduced into the body in a number of cytotoxic serum (heterociclici), causing more or less damage to the appropriate cellular elements, is autoimmunization own denaturirovannym tissue antigens with education and autotitrating.