Decompression illness

Decompression disease - diseases associated with the transition from an environment with a high pressure environment with lower pressure. Decompression illness is most common in divers, pilots.
A kind of decompression illness is caisson disease developing in divers and escondico. The disease is caused by formation in the tissues of the organism, the lymph and blood free of bubbles of gas (mainly nitrogen). In divers and escondico bubbles of nitrogen, and the pilots, in addition to nitrogen, more and carbon dioxide. On the size, number and localization of gas bubbles depend on the nature and severity of the disease.
The disease usually manifests itself shortly after the release from under high pressure. In the period of the diver on the ground at a depth of 90 - 100 m and more can be manifested drug action of nitrogen. Signs of intoxication - laughter, talkativeness, hallucinations.
The clinical course there are light, moderate, severe forms of decompression illness and chronic.
The main symptoms of decompression illness associated with the blockage of blood vessels gas bubbles. When the blockage of blood vessels in the skin, subcutaneous fatty tissue arise painful itching of the skin, erythematous rash, and swelling of separate sites of a skin. There is pain in the joints, bones, muscles due to irritation of the nerve receptors gas bubbles. Pain in the bones, in addition, may be associated with localization of gas in the bone marrow. To the listed symptoms can join changes in the inner ear with the emergence magnetoscope syndrome (see Manyara disease).
Embolism vessels of the gastrointestinal tract may lead to pain in the abdomen, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
In some cases it develops visual disturbances. There may be signs of cardiovascular and pulmonary insufficiency with the blockage of the coronary and regional vessels.
For chronic forms characteristic re embolism , bones and joints; most often affects diateza, the epiphysis and cartilage femoral, shoulder, and tibial bone. Movements in the extremities become difficult, atrophy of muscles. Can also be symptoms characteristic lesion of the spinal cord and the maze.
Diagnosis of decompression illness is no problem, the prognosis depends on the form of the disease and timely treatment.
Treatment. Rapid recompression in a special recompression chambers (medical gateways), i.e. increasing the pressure to a level that was in use. While the bubbles of gas is compressed to a safe sizes, nitrogen is converted back to a soluble state. After this the slow decreasing pressure. The effectiveness of recompression can be enhanced by the use of pure oxygen. On leaving the gateway patient should appoint excessive drinking, pain and other symptoms, warm water or air baths.
Prevention. Regular medical examination, control of diving equipment, the pilots are tight cabins, correct mode of conducting decompression.
Medical personnel should be instructed divers, workers employed on caisson work, about the possibility of decompression illness and the measures for their prevention. Should be instructed about rules of behaviour during decompression.
In the recompression chamber must be heaters, blankets, hot drink. Not allowed to drink alcohol.