Grandfather Shchukar and Nastasya Filippovna

Let us forbear: the idea was born not physiologist, and the engineer. He built the "chamber of local action" - hollow cylinder with sealing cuff, in which you can shove leg or arm, and then pump out of the air chambers. Then, they say, vessels in the camera will extend, will increase the blood flow, and a diseased limb would get well thanks to increased power. Something like a medical cans or hot pot, which grandfather Shchukarev were cured from the weakness of the stomach." All the same the sun goes above me, but it is not wholly new.
Jokes aside, we had a chance to test experimentally the effect of "local negative pressure", or briefly LOD. Physiology knew long ago that the local lowering of external pressure does not increase, but decrease the blood supply, and permanently (hour and more), the idea of the inventor was untenable. But, as said France, there are forces far more powerful than science,is ignorance and recklessness. Knowing that will have to fight like a fish on LOD, we understood that a negative result is important, and have chosen for the study of skeletal muscle, and the study started from the end. The first student, who had been entrusted with part of the case, immediately convinced that muscle strength decompression does not increase. But does not decrease, despite the decrease blood flow, which we saw for themselves in all experiments, almost without exception: arteries act in defiance of the circumstances, answering stretching immediate and more painful strong spasm.
However, strength is not all. There endurance - ability for long-term work, i.e. low fatigue. In the conditions of the whole organism exhaustion occurs in the nerve centers earlier than in muscle, and muscle means something.
It was found that fatigue the muscles occurs under the action of LOD later than usual, and this effect (we called it LOD-effect) is saved and after decompression. The effect was only when the session LOD lasted more than a minute. This is very important. More importantly, the effect had a local character, muscles and other areas remained normal fatigue. After decompression foot standard duration of work grew times in a half of high-class athletes. During a training run on 15-25 km stayers finished much earlier than the control group, leaving it in kilo-meter and a half behind. Grew up and jump height (i.e., the rate of contraction of the muscles). In short, everything was Vice versa: the blood flow is decreased, and the performance increased. Moreover, in those rare experiences when not increased efficiency, blood flow did not fall. The impression was that the blood flow is generally useless thing.
I have to admit that after the first experiments in the lab we had a working hypothesis which we published in the first article, but it hypothesis to prove; you can think of and many other hypotheses, through the midst of whom had to be torn, but for us it was not very difficult, because this problem no one else never seriously been involved in doing it.
It is clear that the effect was not in arteries or veins, and capillaries, which for lack of muscle't resist increased transmural (i.e., sorry heavy translation, christenaochoa) pressure and in contrast to the arteries in determining the bloodstream, stretched. This in itself does not affect local consumption of oxygen, but out of the capillary through his extended pores can penetrate into the interstitial space large molecules floating in the blood and in usual conditions difficultly onto the fabric. These molecules (most likely protein) can be carriers of oxidative enzymes or other stimulants cell metabolism. It was, therefore, about the restructuring of the local currency in the tissues at LOD and quite a long reconstruction. Indeed, fabrics, who was in LOD, was discovered the amazing voracity with respect to oxygen, eating his one and a half times more than usual. It was a shift of currency in aerobic side energetically more efficient. About it speak! Lee and reduction of the concentration of non-completely oxidized products in the blood, and other biochemical parameters.
Clinicians have calculated that the use of two pressure chambers local action in one of the Moscow clinics for the treatment of obliterating endarteritis for nine years in terms of sick pay or cost of hospital treatment has kept the country about 1.5 million rubles of Course, the main thing - not in rubles, and in preserving the health and prevented amputations, but agree that the figure itself is expressive.
So, we suspected as the cause of the effect of large molecules in the blood plasma. That these molecules are great, shows a long latent period effect of LOD, latent period - after all, between exposure (start decompression) and the maximum increase efficiency passes for 5 min! Meanwhile, every muscle fiber has its own capillary, it trails on the surface of the fiber, so that the distance to the wall of the capillary to shell muscle cells in a straight where less than a micron. It means that the molecules are walking painfully slow. Therefore, the value of molecules are extremely impressive: the speed of diffusion in liquid media is inversely proportional to the square root of molecular mass of moving matter. Indeed, the "negative pressure" modifies the protein composition of the blood, and some protein fraction lose their initial concentration. Where do they go?
LOD no effect on blood pressure, although raises a tone of blood vessels in the zone decompression. Work after a session of LOD is slightly faster (compared to "control") palpitations. Finally, the third point: the standard power after the action of LOD is under more intense breathing than usual. If you have a sharp memory, you have already understood that these three points constitute the "triad of Bezold Vice versa." Perhaps this means that running "decompencirovannah" muscles produce less oxidized toxins and therefore reflex of chemoreceptors get weaker. This is a sufficient argument to talk about chemoreceptor restructuring of blood circulation in General.
Under heavy load, the body is very overheats. The so-called Central body temperature, i.e. the temperature of internal organs, which constitutes slightly more than 37 C alone can at full load to rise above 39C C. As mentioned, the athlete at the temperature of 38.7 °usually cannot continue to work with the specified capacity. After decompression running feet refusal to work occurred in the same Central temperature (Microterminal installed on the eardrum, and the ear canal insulated from the external environment in the heat ratio). Now, "the temperature of failure" after decompression not changed, but significantly slowed overheating. Then, activate the thermal control, increased cooling of the body. Local decompression, reducing blood flow to the working muscles, thereby freeing the reserve for the increase in skin blood flow. The skin with its blood vessels for the body is the same thing that evaporator for a refrigerator.
Equipment for the application of local decompression became mandatory for all Olympic bases in the country. So it was unpleasant to Wake up in a cold sweat from scary thought. Judge for yourself. Evolution has created a reliable and always ready-to-use way to quickly increase the power and endurance of muscles. But if there is no pressure chambers, then there is no effect. In other words, the mechanism exists, it is in good condition, but it is forbidden: charged start button. Nature vetoed? Hence, the mechanism threat? Is it not better to turn local decompression to clarify its remote consequences?
However, any unwanted results systematic and even long-term use of LOD no one noticed, it is important that the repeated sessions of local decompression did not cause addiction. In addition, during muscle work in the working muscles, the blood flow increases in dozens of times, and several times must increase the pressure in the capillaries of these muscles, but still count in increased blood pressure. Isn't that similar to the action of local decompression, which we suggested?
And another thing. Resistive Vienna can, as you know, sivetice together with the relevant arterioles, but can act in the opposite direction.
The expansion of arterioles and increase of arterial inflow plus narrowing venules and the difficulty of the venous outflow is this not the same thing that happens in the chamber of local action?
The muscles of the legs or arms, down, can do a great job than if they are raised. Some physiologists West explained this fact by the fact that in lower limb blood flow is a little stronger than in the raised. The flow "down" is really little more than "above", but that's what experience has put us. On the shoulder of inflatable cuff is imposed - such, what you've measured blood pressure. Inflate the cuff to the level of diastolic blood pressure; it does not prevent the flow of blood, but certainly overlaps Vienna, pressure which should rise over time to the same value that the cuff, and still a little to venous blood back to the heart. After 10 min, off the cuff, measure the efficiency of the corresponding muscles of the forearm and make sure that it has significantly increased. Apparently, the blood flow is a good thing, but especially good blood flow under high capillary pressure.
For further research was suitable only a frog. These experiences were more precisely, because we put them simultaneously on two legs of the animal, one of which was in the "frog" the chamber, and therefore simultaneous irritation two relevant nerves (cut) gave an opportunity to evaluate the effect is not only statistically, the average duration of work, but in each individual experience. The brain and spinal cord destroyed. It is clear that in these conditions it is impossible to speak even a whisper about reflex nature of the effect, if it appears. Especially not pass the approval of psychological procedures. Both exposed nerve irritation same intensity, because they summed up annoying the electrodes are connected in parallel.
The first thing we found out that "LOD-effect" in such conditions you can call and a frog. The latent period (1 min) and the peak effect (5 minutes) - the same as that of a human and a cat. The length of the muscles or the degree of tension in the experience and control were strictly identical, and this allowed rejected and despised and expanding effect LOD on the muscle. Experienced readers may surprise effect of LOD in these circumstances, because the Frog, devoid of the Central nervous system (and hence, the respiratory centre) has not, it would seem that the possibility to replenish the oxygen supply of blood, contrary to our hypothesis. But at rest or close to peace blood oxygenation of amphibians occurs mainly through the skin. Another thing, if frogs should also delete the heart. Here, it would seem, decompression cannot improve the efficiency of the muscles, if only our basic assumption is correct. However, in this case the health of the muscles twitch in conditions of low pressure is higher, although both muscles reduce efficiency.
In the experiments the following series before decompression and the work of the bloodstream entire back half of the body frogs completely washed away the blood ringer's solution and insulated from the vessels of the upper half of the body. Now, when the vessels of the hind legs were not of blood, local decompression not already exerted a stimulating effect on muscle performance, and even slightly decreased.
It is clear from this! the effect of LOD - local phenomenon, although in the conditions of the whole organism, it causes a reflex restructuring of blood circulation and breathing. For the effect you want in vessels muscles was blood, the rest is discarded.
Had to prove that in the blood plasma contains macromolecular substance that, when absorbed into the intercellular fluid muscles, and increase efficiency.