The effect of industrial poisons on the human organism and preventive measures

Industrial poisons - substances with which the workers come into contact in the production, and can have harmful effects (as a rule, in a domestic environment, they won't appear).
Poisons can enter the body in three ways: through the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, skin. Through the respiratory tract penetrate the poisons in the air, mainly in steam and gas dust-like state. Through the gastrointestinal tract, they penetrate from contaminated hands, the ingestion of dust. Through the skin penetrate more substance, liquid, oil and pasty consistency.
Most poisonings associated with the receipt of poisons through the respiratory tract. The large surface of the lungs, the subtlety of the alveolar walls, rich blood to create good conditions for penetration of poisons from the lungs into the blood.
Chemicals worse absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract than through the upper respiratory tract (smaller surface, selective intake). The absorption begins in the mouth. In the stomach especially easily absorbed substances soluble in lipids. From the intestine by blood and lymphatic vessels of the substance spread in the body. From the blood they do to the liver, where they undergo various transformations. Through the skin can come substances that are soluble in fats and lipids. This is mainly organic matter (aniline, nitrobenzene and other).
Industrial poisons out of the body through the lungs, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, skin. Through the lungs are also deleted volatile substances, insoluble in liquids of the organism. Through the kidneys are allocated all products of transformation of poisons in the body. Poorly soluble substances, in particular heavy metals (lead, mercury), are excreted by the kidneys very slowly. Through the gastrointestinal tract are allocated insoluble or poorly soluble substances (lead, mercury, antimony, manganese and others). Some metals (lead, mercury) are allocated also with the saliva. Through the skin and sebaceous glands are substances soluble in fats (arsenic, mercury, hydrogen sulphide). Substances that are soluble in fats, are allocated also with milk (mercury, lead). Therefore, in our country, pregnant women are not allowed to work in factories, where possible contact with these substances.
The harmful effects of poisons may have a local character, being manifested in pathological changes in the place of contact poison with tissues of the organism (the burn at the site of action of acids, alkalis). The penetration of toxic substances (mercury, lead) in the blood flow causes a General poisoning. However, this division is relative. For example, acid and alkali, causing a burn on the site of contact, however, can cause heavy and General reaction of the body.
As a result of influence of poisons may experience acute and chronic occupational poisoning. Acute poisonings occur due to one-time or short-term effects of poison in high concentrations. Chronic poisoning are the result of gradual accumulation in the body of the poison (material accumulation) or, more commonly, the summation in the body of the changes caused by the influence of the poison (functional cumulation). Currently, acute poisoning is extremely rare. Significantly reduced the number of chronic poisoning. This indicates the improvement of working conditions and the change in the level of knowledge required for recognition of chronic poisoning.
In addition to specific actions, poisons may have and non-specific effect (reduction of resistance to infection and other diseases).
Preventive measures against occupational poisoning are as follows:
- replacement of toxic substances by harmless or less harmful, where possible. An example is the removal of mercury from the felt production, the use of toluene instead of benzene and other;
- the establishment of maximum permissible concentrations of toxic substances in the air of enterprises and systematic monitoring of condition of environment;
- mechanization and sealing of production processes, which excludes the working contact with poisonous substances;
- rational ventilation of industrial premises. Work with toxic substances in laboratories should be carried out in flueblocks;
- supply of workers personal protective equipment: protective clothing, masks, respirators. The importance of the observance by workers of personal hygiene rules. Enterprises should be showers, dressing rooms for the storage of clothing and personal service. Should prohibit eating and Smoking inside the premises;
- sanitary instruction and training of employees in safe working practices;
- preliminary and periodic medical examinations aimed to identify early symptoms of occupational poisoning;
- a special meal. Since 1953, we have entered treatment-preventive diet containing foods that increase resistance to action of industrial poisons;
- reduction of the working day, the extension of leave.