Demographic characteristics of the population

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Age-specific employment rates of women in different countries vary depending on the characteristics of their legal and family status. Thus, in the economically developed countries, the preference is given to young girls and women without children and women - mothers adult children, singles, widows and divorced. In this approach, the minimum level of employment is observed in childbearing age. In socialist countries, the expansion of the network of children's crib and gardens, providing benefits for pregnant women, nursing mothers, the advantages of a system of protection of motherhood and childhood, health of women, and most importantly equal labour rights with men determine the approximation of the nature of age-related changes of employment of women to that of men (table. 3). These differences and peculiarities of employment of men and women, different age on the example of the USA and England are presented in Fig. 1.

Table 3. The dynamics of employment of the population of the USSR for the period from 1926 to 1970,1
Age, years Men Women
1926 1959 1970 1926 1959 1970
16-19
20-29
30-39
40-49
50-59
60 and older
87,5
94,0
96,0
96,5
95,7
74,4
64,9
90,5
95,5
br93.1
90,0
53,0
52,1
92,5
97,6
96,0
90,0
19,0
79,2
74,5
74,0
75,1
69,3
38,2
64,4
80,1
79,3
75,7
67,2
32,1
46,3
85,8
91,2
88,5
74,3
4,4
1 According to the materials of the population census.Douaumont and employment of male and female population of the United States and Britain
Fig. 1. Divemaster and employment of male and female population of the USA and England, depending on age and family status. Lx-number of surviving to age x out of 100 000 born simultaneously; LWx - the number of employees from among Lx.

It should be emphasized that in the Union republics of the USSR, the level of total employment rate of the male population is higher than women's. This difference is especially pronounced in the Kazakh SSR (37%), Armenian SSR (32%), the Turkmen Soviet socialist Republic (31%). The minimum difference in employment of men and women (16,8%) was noted in the Moldavian SSR, where in General it has the highest level. The maximum level of male employment in all republics corresponds to that period of age 30-39 years and is not less than 94%. Unequal in the Union republics and the rate of decline of employment with increasing age. A less pronounced decline was observed in the Moldovan, Belarusian and Lithuanian SSR, the highest - in the RSFSR.