Demographic characteristics of the population

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In the economic literature potential employment opportunities for the population in General is determined by the number of people of working age and the period of forthcoming life in accordance with the limits of working age. However, this is a very inaccurate counting. It does not take into account the age structure of the working age population and those younger and older than working age.
We conducted the calculations have shown that the male and female population of working age considering the age structure in 1959 and had the potential 1.5 and 1.4 billion person-years. Working adolescents more significantly complement this value than pensioners, for the period of their forthcoming life above the proposed boundaries of working age. But as among the working numerical representation of pensioners in 10-20 times more than the teenagers, the total contribution of these groups in total labour potential of the country is almost the same. For pensioners-men he was 0.6%, for women-1,8%, and adolescents - 0.9 and 0,86 % respectively.
Even more significant clarification of the actual employment potential can be obtained when considering the employment of the population of working ages. In our country in terms of labour shortages and the lack of unemployment spells of unemployment in this period is due to a disability I early preferential retirement, or natural distraction women from employment for family reasons. Thus, in 1959 was not working 10.1 million men and 15.7 million women of working age that when calculating the totality of the population of working age is allowed to determine the average excess of the labour potential of the country to 608 million person-years. In 1970 was not working 9.7 million men and 12.2 million women of working age, which amounted to about 675 million man-years of labor potential.
Total labor potential of the population of the USSR, calculated with account of age for the period from 1897 (the first census) in 1970, nearly doubled, mainly due to an increase in the number of people of working age, and the average value of labour potential, increasing to 1959 among men and until 1926 among women, further decreased, which is directly related to the manifestation of an ageing population.
Labour potential, calculated based on the actual employment of the population of different ages, in all parameters is lower than for the working-age population, although in the first case considered labour activity of persons younger and older than him. Potential labour resources of the country (all population of working age and working teenagers and pensioners), naturally, the most high.
So, depending on the task, the original positions of the source, which serves as the basis for determining labour potential, the employment opportunities of the population acquire various quantitative assessment. More valuable and credible is it when taking into account the age composition of the studied population.
The use of the labour force more efficiently assessed with regard to employment and age composition of the working population. The reduction of labor activity of the population with increasing age was sufficient reason for the increased attention of the society to the problem of full and rational use of labor capacity of the population and the factors that contribute to it. Graphically the dynamics of employment by labor in the USSR for more than half a century are presented in Fig. 2.
Divemaster and employment of male and female population of Russia

Fig. 2. Divemaster and employment of male and female population of Russia (1897) and the USSR (1926, 1959, 1970), depending on age. The designations are the same as in Fig. 1.