Demographic characteristics of the population

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Demographic ageing, i.e. the increase layer of pensioners in the population, characteristic for economically developed countries, is the result of complex socio-economic transformation. This explains the growing interest of the society to the population of older ages: the level of labour activity, General and occupational health, labour efficiency, qualification and professional conformity, placement in the national economy, the needs of working and retired elderly.
Reduction in the natural reproduction of the population and labour force, the relative share of younger population groups and increase average life expectancy of people have an impact on population ageing working age and to a certain extent on the age structure of employees.
There is an opinion that one of the serious implications of ageing of the total population is ageing of the working age population, which reduced the relative share of young and increasing proportion of older people. The basis for judgement about this are the data about the age structure of the working age population for different periods. Rosset, analyzing the dynamics of the age structure of the population of the working period 22 countries, showed that the proportion of persons 40-59 years of 20-59 years increases the severity of aging of the total population. In countries with a high level of ageing of the population, the group of persons aged 40-59 years among 20-59 years in 2 times higher than in developing countries, where the process of ageing of population is less pronounced. In developing countries the ratio of groups before and after 40 years presents a value of 3:1, in the group of countries with medium level of ageing - 3,5:2,5, while in countries with a pronounced ageing - 1: 1. In each country the ageing of the working age population flows kind, and in a number of countries in the future it will not be observed in General, and in some countries will have a tendency to rejuvenation. These are the forecasts for France, Belgium, Germany, Australia, Poland, due to the coincidence of factors such as the ageing of the population, the low number of births during the first world war and the large number of casualties during the second world war.
In the USSR, where the total population ageing is being noticeable shifts, the increase in the share of older age groups among the population of working ages. So, in 1926, the share of persons 40-59 years among 16-59 year was 26.9%, in 1939 - 28,3%, in 1959 33.3% in 1970. -37,8%.
Dynamics of further ageing of the working age population taking into account the forecast on the example of the population of Ukraine is presented in the table. 1.

Table 1. The percentage of persons 40-54 (59) years (in percent) as part 16-54 (59)-year-old men and women of the Ukrainian SSR (C. S. Steshenko, 1968)
Floor Year
1926 1959 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986
Male
Female
23,5
20,5
30,6
33,2
30,8
34,3
33,7
36,4
34,4
36,2
40,4
39,1
40,0
35,6
The data suggests that the characteristics of the natural movement of population, dynamics of increasing life expectancy, the manifestation of the consequences of wars promote the further ageing of the working age population.
Forecast data contribute to a special attention to the problem of matching the requirements of modern production and the functionality of an aging workforce.