Medical deontology

The totality of moral-ethical standards in medical workers of their professional duties are combined in the concept of medical deontology - the doctrine of duty of the physician, the middle and Junior medical staff.
Deontology includes three equally important components: the duty of medical worker in relation to the company; the duty of medical workers towards patients and their family and friends; the duty of medical workers towards their colleagues by profession.
In the words of academician of AMS of the USSR A. F. Bilibin, "Deontology is the soul of medicine and the wisdom of healing". Deontology Soviet physician contains all the best that is humanism.
High moral requirements to the doctors are predefined by the essence of the medical profession, its fundamental characteristicsthat distinguish: the medical profession from others.
The main feature of the medical profession is that the object of activity of the doctor are an individual, his life and health. This imposes a great responsibility on the doctor, for health and life is the most precious thing a person has.
The peculiarity of the medical profession due to the extreme complexity and diversity of the life processes of the human body, the variability of flow of diseases in the individual their manifestation in each individual, as well as increasing flow of scientific medical information, a manifestation of new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and tools. This requires daily, throughout the medical work, self-study and self-improvement.
The peculiarity of the profession of doctor should be considered everyday heroism, a constant battle for the preservation of health and life of people. This is particularly evident in the work of doctors surgery and resuscitation.
"The profession of a doctor is a feat. It requires selflessness, purity of soul and purity of thoughts", - wrote the great Russian writer, doctor and humanist A. P. Chekhov.
It should be noted that in no other profession errors and omissions are not so hard for a human consequences, and it is because of an error and negligence of the doctor patient pays and pays for it with their health and sometimes life.
The listed features of medical activity necessitate a high moral and ethical qualities for any medical professional and first of all - of a doctor.
The physician's activity is strictly regulated not only moral but also legal norms - the necessity of observance of the legislation on health care, departmental orders and instructions. It should be noted that all legal norms, regulating activity of the doctor, have a deep moral basis of the principles of Communist morality. Conversely, some moral norms, such as the obligation to respect medical confidentiality, became law.
It is well known that the violation of the health workers in the norms of Soviet law precedes oblivion ethical standards in systems of "doctor - patient", "physician - society". Failure to observe deontological rules often a cause for conflicts between patients, their families, and medical personnel, especially for poor treatment outcomes.
The fundamental principles of Soviet medical deontology are the following principles.
1. In the system of " Doctor - patient". One of the main moral traits of the doctor is the high sense of responsibility for the life and health of the patient. It is primarily manifested in a sensitive and attentive attitude to the patients, the ability to find an individual approach to them and to establish good contact with them, in the study of psychology of the sick person. However, one sensitive enough: a sense of responsibility can be realized only through high professional skill of the doctor, his ability clinically to think, in each case properly formulate and substantiate the diagnosis of the disease, choose and apply a method of treatment, to achieve health and social and labour rehabilitation of the patient.
The doctor should be able to earn the trust of the patient to his patient inspire faith in the success of treatment. For this purpose it is necessary to study characteristic features of the patient, to take them into account, to try to neutralize and overcome mistrust, anxiety about the outcome of the disease, skillfully provide psychotherapy and psychological prevention.
Medical ethics requires a physician sincerity, honesty and truthfulness. If the disease is more or less favorable forecast, the doctor must inform the patient of the diagnosis. However, in some cases, for example with inoperable malignant tumors, other incurable diseases, valid "white lie" - patient should inform the other diagnosis, in order not to deprive him of the hope of salvation.
2. In the system of Doctor - patient relatives". The patient must be in optimal psycho-hygienic environment. In its creation is a greater role not only the doctor but also the relatives of the patient. The doctor will need to find and make contact with them on the basis of high tact, openness and mutual trust. Relatives should be informed about the patient are necessary and accurate information about the diagnosis of the disease, to avoid assumptions, not to disclose information constituting a medical mystery. Work of the doctor with the relatives of the patient should be individualized. This should take into account the relationship of the patient to his relatives and the impact on the patient, the ability to assist the Clinician in the psychotherapeutic effect on the patient.
3. In the system of "Doctor - doctor", "a doctor from the medical field and". The relationship between physicians and other health care workers are an important part of medical deontology. On how to properly and politely these relationships are built, what psychological climate in the hospital depends on the quality of his work. The key to good relationships in the medical communities, mutual respect, mutual trust, readiness to help each other, and ultimately to the patient. Invalid sharp criticism from one physician to address other in the presence of patients, nurses. However, medical conferences actions of physicians or other health professionals should be discussed strictly objective, but in the calm tone that criticism should wear a constructive nature.
The average and younger medical personnel - coming physician assistants. Their work is noble but difficult, and they deserve careful consideration. One of the principles of the Communist morality says: "the Man is a friend, comrade and brother." In the relationship of medical workers among themselves, this principle should be dominant.