Fungal diseases of the skin

fungiFungal diseases of the skin (synonym dermatomycosis, fungi) - diseases caused by various pathogenic fungi. Sources of the infection are animals, plants, sick people and objects, infected them. Penetrating through the skin, mucous membranes, the infection may spread through the lymphatic and blood vessels (deep mycosis). Various comorbidities (metabolic and endocrine disorders), lack of vitamins reduce the body's resistance and contribute to the emergence of fungal diseases of the skin. More sick people working in agriculture (due to the constant contact with animals and plants), or in conditions where the skin is subject to ongoing maceration.
Fungal diseases of the skin can be divided into 4 groups.
1. Keratomycosis. The parasitic pathogens in surface departments of the stratum corneum of the epidermis, or the hair cuticle, not penetrating into medullary substance. Inflammatory reaction from the dermis is usually absent. These ringworm malakanagiri, these include otrubevidnyi zoster, eritrazma (see), Piedra, Trichomonas armpit.
2. Epidermolise. Pathogens parasites in the deeper layers of the stratum corneum of the epidermis and cause inflammatory reactions from other layers of the skin. May be affected nail plate. Diseases of this group contagious (see Athlete, Candidiasis).
3. Trichomycosis. Pathogenic fungi thrive in the stratum corneum, causing an inflammatory reaction of the skin; often affects the cuticle and internal departments of the hair. Diseases in this group are very contagious, these include trichophytosis (see), microsporia (see), impetigo (see Favus).
4. Deep mycosis. Pathogenic fungi thrive in deep layers of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, causing chronic granulomatous inflammatory response character. The infection can affect the lymph nodes, bones, muscles, internal organs. These diseases include: blastomycosis (see), the actinomycetes (see), sporotrichosis (see), hromomikoz (see), histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, etc.
Diagnosis of fungal diseases of the skin is based on the clinical data and the results of the following methods: 1) using the microscope unpainted drugs derived from drops of pus, strokes with mucous membranes, scrapings from the peripheral region in the lesion of the skin, hair, and 2) the cultivation of pathogenic fungi on artificial nutrient media; 3) histological examination (biopsy); 4) immunobiological study, especially at deep mycosis.
The fungus treatment depends on the clinical form and the location of the lesion and, to a lesser extent on the type of pathogen. Locally appointed: aniline dyes, Lugol solution, ointments containing sulfur, resorcinol, mercury compounds, tar; auxiliary importance washing, the use of keratolytic (softening) and exfoliants, the removal of the affected nail plates, hair removal hair. Inside designate: potassium iodide and antifungal antibiotics (griseofulvin, nystatin and others). Cm. certain types of fungal infections.
Prevention: special attention should be paid to highly contagious forms of fungal diseases of the skin (trichophytosis, microsporia, favus), the prevention of which the important role of the nurse. For early detection of such patients require regular preventive examinations (once in two-three months) children's groups, examination of contacts, examination staff and all children entering children's institutions. All the objects with which the patient contact should be disinfected or deleted, all lost or deleted hair patients need to burn. In children's establishments ill with mycosis children only after clinical and bacteriological control. In view of the frequent intrusion microsporia and trichophytia from cats, dogs, pigs, horses and other animals need to fight fungal infections in animals. The importance of sanitary-hygienic control in the public baths, swimming pools, hairdresser and therapeutic baths at the resorts and health education of the population.