Dermatomyositis (synonym polymyositis) is a systemic disease of the skin, muscles with a variety of lesions of internal organs. Etiology and pathogenesis - see Collagen disease.
Onset may be sharp, but more often gradually. Affects the skin (erythema, rash, dense swelling of affected muscles), striated muscles (myalgia, progressive male - to complete immobility), especially the muscles of the neck, back, shoulder and pelvic girdles. The defeat of the pharyngeal muscles causing the dysphagia (see). In addition, there are arthralgia, myocarditis, sometimes with heart failure. If the picture of dermatomyositis atrophy of the skin is a term used poikilodermatomyositis". More rarely involved in the pathological process of the gastrointestinal tract (gastroenterocolitis), the kidneys, liver, eyes (retinity, hemorrhage).
Diagnosis of dermatomyositis is based on the clinical picture. Characterized by an increase in transaminaz in blood and creatinuria.
Prognosis in acute for poor, death 3-6 months for chronic long-term preservation of health.
Treatment. In acute and subacute during use of steroid hormones in large doses (on prescription), preferably prednisone for 40-60 up to 100 mg / day, followed by a gradual reduction of the dose after the distinct improvement (average of 2 months); aminoquinolinic drug - hingamin (delagil, Raskin, chloroquine) 0.25 g 1 a day after dinner for 1-1,5 years; vitamins (b and C); ATF 1 ml of 1 % solution intramuscularly at the rate of 15 to 20 injections and so on Hormone therapy lasts for at least 1 year. The chronic course of the treatment is the same, but the corticosteroid is used in a smaller dose is 20-30 mg prednisolone per day) and for a shorter time.